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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... and microcrystalline tapes, marine petrolatum-based pile systems; cold-applied petrolatum-based paste coating systems; hot-applied microcrystalline wax flood coating systems; wax-based dips, brushons, and sprays; and wax-impregnated fabrics and wax-coated papers. The article also discusses the applications...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... flood application gaseous fluids mist system paste semichemical fluids solid lubricants water-miscible fluids WHEN PROPERLY APPLIED, cutting fluids can increase productivity and reduce costs by making possible the use of higher cutting speeds, higher feed rates, and greater depths of cut...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... and inhibitor effectiveness. The article concludes information on the computerization of inhibitor treating programs. corrosion inhibitors oil and gas production organic inhibitors oil wells gas wells water injection systems pipelines pumping wells water floods brine corrosion corrosion rate...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... machining stainless steels. It is recommended that zirconium and hafnium alloys be flooded with a water-soluble coolant when machined. Chips should not be allowed to accumulate in the machine bed and should be continually removed and stored, preferably under water, in isolated areas. Guidelines...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... to prevent fire ( Ref 8 , 9 ).) To prevent fire when machining uranium or uranium alloys, the cutting area must be flooded with coolant, chips must be prevented from accumulating in the chip pan, and chips must be submerged. Machined chips that are being transported should be kept stored under water...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... of cutting or grinding fluids: flooding and misting. It discusses and lists the American Society for Testing and Materials standard test procedures used in establishing control of cutting and grinding fluids. The article provides information on the storage, distribution, cleaning, and disposal of cutting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... 2100 1.52 0.060 63.5 2.5 762 30 638 2100 0.76 0.030 63.5 2.5 1016 40 101.5 4.0 510 1677 1.27 0.050 63.5 2.5 762 30 Note: Water used as flood coolant. (a) Tools can be operated at higher surface-feet-per-minute values when lighter cuts are taken. In summary...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the need for a central core in the pipe mold, and the mold was water cooled, allowing for a high rate of repeated use. The technique uses the centrifugal force generated by a rotating cylindrical mold to throw molten metal against a mold wall to form the desired shape. Therefore, a centrifugal casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Soils removed by alkaline cleaning include oils, grease, waxes, metallic fines, and dirt. Alkaline cleaners are applied by either spray or immersion facilities and are usually followed by a warm water rinse. A properly cleaned metal surface optimizes the performance of a coating that is subsequently...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... by flooding the surface with solvent, in the same manner as for water-washable penetrants. The flooding technique is particularly useful for large workpieces, but it must be very carefully used to prevent removal of the penetrant from the flaws. The solvent-removable system is used mainly in special...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... can be composed of petroleum oil, extreme-pressure lubricants, emulsifiers, soaps, wetting agents, coupling agents, corrosion inhibitors, biocides, antifoams, and water. Depending on composition, fluids are generally categorized as: Synthetic or chemical fluids contain no petroleum oil...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... work operations require film strength in excess of that which is possible with solutions and emulsions, a paste, suspension, or coating may prove to be the best lubricant choice. Pastes may be oil- or water-base, pigmented or nonpigmented. Pigments include talc, mica, or similar inactive but effective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... and temperature gradients. The reactor floor was flooded with 2.4 m (8 ft) of radioactive water. In the aftermath, the coatings on concrete were found to have absorbed radionuclides that penetrated not only the coating matrix but also the underlying concrete substrate. The only effective means of decontamination...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... or vacuum induction melting. Secondary Fabrication Zirconium and hafnium are readily machined with conventional methods. However, both have a tendency to gall and work harden. This can be avoided by slow speeds, heavy feeds, and by using a flood lubricant system using a water-soluble oil lubricant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... reservoirs under deep ocean waters must enter submarine production pipelines and related equipment. The production environment is quickly cooled from the high temperatures mentioned previously to near freezing temperatures (1 to 4 °C, or 35 to 40 °F) by the surrounding deep sea environment. This condition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Surface tension of the liquid Ability of the liquid to wet the surface Contact angle of the liquid The cohesive forces between molecules of a liquid cause surface tension. An example of the influence of surface tension is the tendency of free liquid, such as a droplet of water, to contract...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002188
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... at high temperature.) However, flooding the cutting area with cutting fluid generally cools the tool enough to avoid breakdown of the carbide bond. Water-base fluids are preferred in high-speed turning, milling, and grinding because of their greater cooling effect. These may be soluble oils...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... pouring the mounting liquid over the specimen will eliminate as much of the trapped air as possible and will improve penetration of the cold-mounting liquid. Grinding Grinding is performed first on an abrasive belt flooded with water or on a low-speed disk grinder (approximately 500 rpm) using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... that include high-pressure streams directed at the tool-chip interface are being introduced in an effort to lubricate and cool this location, while encouraging chip breakage for continuous cutting operations. The two primary fluid types are: Water-based (oil/synthetic/organic and water emulsion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... liquid solution for control analysis) is often diluted in water to obtain a final specimen suitable for analysis ( Ref 2 ). The ICP-OES technique is preferred in many circumstances for the determination of trace, major, and minor elements in a single experiment for samples that are not suitable...