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water drop impingement

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., cavitation and water drop impingement, and corrosion fatigue. It describes the factors affecting the severity of fretting corrosion. The article also illustrates the relationship between corrosion fatigue and stress-corrosion cracking. mechanically assisted degradation corrosion wear fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Abstract Liquid impingement erosion has been defined as progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to continued exposure to impacts by liquid drops or jets. This article focuses on the core nature of erosion by liquid impingement, due to the greater appreciation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... by the impingement of a quenchant medium on a hot metal surface. Some of these processes have obvious differences, while others are similar and differ only in degree. Examples include the addition of droplets of water (or other volatile liquids) to a gas quenching stream in fog quenching ( Ref 1 ); quenching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... direction change, such as an elbow, downstream of a valve and orifice, or at a T-junction. Moreover, even if the flow is a single-phase water flow, droplet impingement may occur downstream of the valve or orifice due to flashing when the local pressure is lower than the vapor pressure. Erosion-rate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... These include cavitation erosion, liquid impingement erosion, and solid particle erosion. Cavitation erosion is due to the formation and collapse, within a liquid, of cavities or bubbles that contain vapor or gas or both. Liquid impingement erosion is due to impacts by liquid drops or jets. Solid impingement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... The test apparatus, test specimens, reference materials, calculations, and data interpretation are detailed in Ref 8 . ASTM G 73 ASTM G 73 provides guidelines for liquid drop or jet impingement testing that, in addition to evaluating the resistance of metals, can be used to evaluate the degradation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... erosion. Cavitation erosion is due to the formation and collapse, within a liquid, of cavities or bubbles that contain vapor or gas or both. Liquid impingement erosion is due to impacts by liquid drops or jets. Solid impingement erosion is due to impacts by solid particles. Impingement also connotes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005862
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... hardening polymer quenching quenchants quenching quenching oils residual stress spray quenching steel water quenching INDUCTION HEATING for the hardening of steels has advantages from standpoint of quenching, because parts are individually processed in a controlled manner. This permits...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... degradation Erosion Forms of Mechanically Assisted Degradation (section on Erosion) 322 Fretting Forms of Mechanically Assisted Degradation (section on Fretting Corrosion) 324 Cavitation; water drop impingement Forms of Mechanically Assisted Degradation (section on Cavitation Erosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... concentration of free chelant and dissolved oxygen or polymer. Especially susceptible surfaces include flow impingement areas of feedwater piping, riser tubes, and cyclone steam/water separators. Affected areas are often dark colored and have the appearance of uniform thinning or flow-accelerated corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... There are four distinct forms of erosive wear: Dry solid particle erosion Liquid droplet erosion Cavitation erosion Slurry erosion Dry Solid Particle Erosion Dry solid particle erosion (also referred to as blast erosion) is caused by repetitive impingement of solid particles against...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... over the surface of the mold or through passages in the mold directly impinges on the ingot surface. Fig. 4 Vertical direct chill casting. (a) General arrangement of process. (b) Mold assembly. Source: Ref 1 , 2 Water-cooling patterns may be complex. In some cases, the mold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... water flowing over the surface of the mold or through passages in the mold directly impinges on the ingot surface. Fig. 4 Vertical direct chill casting. (a) General arrangement of process. (b) Mold assembly. Source: Ref 1 , 2 Water-cooling patterns may be complex. In some cases...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and flowed in accordance with cooling demand. Under these circumstances, deposits would form on, or particles would drop on, the inner surfaces of the horizontal tubes. Conclusions The tubing failed by crevice corrosion. Particles of dirt in the river water were deposited inside the tubes during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... of the bed to extract the heat removed from the load being quenched to maintain bed temperature is performed by external water jackets or internal tubing. This section briefly considers some of the important aspects of equipment design. Gas Distributor The gas distributor (also called a grid) induces...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... apparatus. ASTM Standard G 73 ASTM Standard G 73 provides guidelines for liquid drop impingement testing that, in addition to evaluating the resistance of metals, can be used to evaluate the degradation of optical properties of window materials and the destruction of coatings by the impinging liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-impact erosion is caused by continued impingement of liquid droplets, usually water moving at high relative velocities (>50 m/s, or >164 ft/s). Because water droplets cannot move at high velocities without breaking up, the practical problem of liquid-droplet erosion arises when a solid body moves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... be expected in corrosion of a copper alloy exposed to aerated natural water. Flow of cooling water from the river through the tubes was not uniform but ebbed and flowed in accordance with cooling demand. Under these circumstances deposits would form on, or particles would drop on, the inner surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... of the part Angle of impingement: the variation of the spray stream from normal or 90┬░ to the surface of the part Time Variables Time variables are controlled in part by: Gun design, for example, bore geometry and exit diameter Total arc/flame gas flow, that is, primary plus secondary gas...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Localized pits, tubercles; water line pitting; crevice corrosion; pitting under foreign objects or dirt Alloy selection; design to avoid crevices; keep metal clean Impingement: erosion-corrosion cavitation Erosion attack from turbulent flow plus dissolved gases, generally as lines of pits in direction...