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water as a quenchant

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... viscosity on the ability of a quenchant to through harden in a continuous furnace. Interestingly, the furnace that the author used had a solid chute with no apparent agitation. In his study, Illgner observed that the sinking times of parts in oil were nearly the same as in water, although water provided...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... close to a constant value, and the heat transfer deteriorates gradually. They also found that the boiling heat transfer of the nanofluid on the smooth surface is almost the same as that of water on the smooth surface at atmospheric pressure, whereas the boiling heat transfer of the nanofluids on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... production quenching are: Lack of flammability Low cost No health hazards Easy scale removal by filtration No environmental hazards associated with water One disadvantage of plain water as a quenchant is that its rapid cooling rate persists throughout the lower temperature range, in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
.... The H -value of unagitated water at 18 °C (64 °F) is assigned the H -value of 1.0. However, it is important to understand that for vaporizable quenchants such as water, petroleum oil, and aqueous polymer solutions, this equation for H -value assumes a linear cooling pathway or Newtonian cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... bismuth, and molten sodium. It also contains tables that list the physical properties of lead, bismuth, sodium, and molten sodium. molten bismuth molten lead molten sodium physical properties quenchants quenching OIL, WATER, AND POLYMER solution baths are frequently used when quenching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... are critical. Make-up water (to control temperature increases in the tank) and local quenchant velocities also influence the cooling rates. In addition, quenching practice is as important as the quenching equipment. Assessment of transformation kinetics can be difficult to assess from precise...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... severity quench tank quenching racking practices spray quenching water as a quenchant QUENCHING refers to the rapid cooling of metal from the solution treating temperature, typically between 465 and 565 °C (870 and 1050 °F) for aluminum alloys. The fundamental objective of quenching is to preserve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is described as instantaneous in Table 1 to distinguish it from the more progressive form of cracking due to fatigue or creep. These basic modes of fracture can also occur in combination, as when a fatigue or creep crack grows over time and ultimately leads to a rapid fracture through overload...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005957
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... heating chamber, the temperature must not vary more than 5.6 °C (10 °F) from the temperature set point. Many metallurgical specifications, including the solution heat treatment of aluminum, for example, require ±2.8 °C (5 °F). For drying water from parts, ±11.1 °C (20 °F) typically is acceptable. How is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... following the solution treatment, when the component is quickly cooled from approximately 500 °C to much lower temperatures by immersing the component in water or polymer quenchant or by using forced air. The temperature gradient from the surface to the interior of the component leads to nonuniform thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., for which water quenching at 60 to 95 °C (140 to 200 °F) is used to develop the best mechanical properties. Glycol or oil quenchants will produce similar properties with reduced distortion. For QE22A products subject to distortion as a result of the severity of water quenching, air cooling may be used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... the H -value for a specific quenchant system. Fig. 15 Variation of H -value at half-temperature time in round bars water quenched from 845 °C (1550 °F) Fig. 16 Variation of H -value at half-temperature time in round bars oil quenched from 845 °C (1550 °F) Table 2 lists the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... be carefully reviewed to determine whether the amount of distortion and the possibility of cracking as a result of water quenching will permit taking advantage of the lower cost of water quenching. Oil, salt, and synthetic water-polymer quenchants are alternatives, but their use often requires steels...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... gas required by the process depends primarily on the carbon demand, that is, the rate at which carbon is absorbed by the work load. Endothermic gas (Endogas) is a blend of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and nitrogen (with smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane) produced by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... holding tanks at each unit. The electrical component cooling was with distilled water that was cooled using shell and tube heat exchangers (as was the polymer quenchant) with water from a large, 19,000 L (5000 gal), treated water system. This system was in turn kept cool by two evaporative cooling towers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... quenching from the solution temperature, typical of microstructures shown in Fig. 2(c) and 2(e) . A good response to aging takes place on water quenching from the beta field, as in Fig. 2(c) ; however, ductilities are quite low. The best combination of properties can be produced by solution treating and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... polymer quenchant more desirable than straight water quenchants in many applications. Proper quench system design requires consideration of many factors during the selection of a quenchant quench system: The quenchant must be selected for the characteristics desired. This includes the quenchant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... simulation of heat treatment processes, in which small strains of up to a few percent are common, this heat contribution is negligible in comparison to the heat extracted by the quenchant and the latent heat of transformation ( Ref 27 , 31 , 54 , 154 ). In addition to the heat induced by plastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... thickness. Quenchant selection and quenching conditions are crucial parameters in quench system design. For example, one study compared distortions obtained after quenching a 200 mm diameter by 500 mm long (8 by 20 in.) 0.4% carbon-steel bar from 680 °C (1260 °F) in water ( Ref 29 , 32 ). Results...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... tolerate some distortion, water, 5% brine, and caustic soda solutions are preferred quenching media. These quenchants have faster cooling rates, preventing premature β-phase decomposition for maximum aging response ( Ref 2 ). Quench delay is the time required to move the part from the furnace to the...