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warpage

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Image
Published: 31 October 2011
Fig. 8 Variation in beam velocity and subsequent warpage of 0.25 mm (0.10 in.) thick type 304 stainless steel joined by a butt weld. (a) Beam traverse, 7110 mm/min (280 in./min); triangular melt zone. (b) Beam traverse, 4190 mm/min (165 in./min); parallel-sided melt zone. Weld parameters: 12 More
Image
Published: 15 June 2020
Fig. 4 Geometry and mesh before the residual-stress and warpage simulation of two deposited filament layers in material extrusion deposition modeling. Source: Ref 4 More
Image
Published: 15 June 2020
Fig. 5 Residual stress at steady-state (left) and warpage/deformation (right) results from simulation in material extrusion deposition modeling. Source: Ref 4 More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 11 Formation of a cold-soldered joint caused by warpage. PCB, printed circuit board; BGA, ball grid array More
Image
Published: 01 January 1993
Fig. 8 Variation in beam velocity and subsequent warpage of 0.25 mm (0.10 in.) thick type 304 stainless steel joined by a butt weld. (a) Beam traverse, 7110 mm/min (280 in./min); triangular melt zone. (b) Beam traverse, 4190 mm/min (165 in./min); parallel-sided melt zone. Weld parameters: 12 More
Image
Published: 01 January 1989
Fig. 13 Replacing conventional clamping method (a) with SAFE clamping method (b) in a modular fixturing system eliminates costly rework or part rejection due to warpage normally encountered when clamping castings and forgings. (a) In conventional clamping, workpiece is normally clamped More
Image
Published: 01 June 2016
Fig. 7 Effect of 3% permanent deformation in compression (T652 treatment) on distribution of stress in a large forging. Parallel and normal refer to warpage directions with respect to the plane of the saw cut. More
Image
Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 29 Examples and design features using ribs and gussets. (a) Ribs used to reinforce a thick circular molded component. (b) Using two thin ribs instead of one thick rib reduces thick sections that could result in sink marks, voids, and part warpage. (c) Typical rib dimensions, which depend More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... occurs due to an inappropriate reflow profile, such that the exterior surface of the solder ball contains silver-laden intermetallic. This silver-rich surface changes the wetting dynamics and will cause improper melting of the solder ball. Package-level warpage (see the section “Warpage/Cold Soldering...
Image
Published: 31 October 2011
(arrows). (c) Not recommended—maximum confinement of melt (unless gap is provided); joining cross section less than plate cross section. (d) Most favorable—minimum constraint and confinement of melt; minimum internal stresses; warpage can be offset by bending prior to welding; tilt can be offset More
Image
Published: 01 January 1993
). (c) Not recommended—maximum confinement of melt (unless gap is provided); joining cross section less than plate cross section. (d) Most favorable—minimum constraint and confinement of melt; minimum internal stresses; warpage can be offset by bending prior to welding; tilt can be offset by location More
Image
Published: 01 January 1997
). (c) Not recommended—maximum confinement of melt (unless gap is provided); joining cross section less than plate cross section. (d) Most favorable—minimum constraint and confinement of melt; minimum internal stresses; warpage can be offset by bending prior to welding; tilt can be offset by location More
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
mm (0.03 in.) Warpage tolerance 0.76 mm (0.03 in.) Flash extension 1.5 mm (0.06 in.) max (a) Also applicable to proposed blocker-type finish forging More
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
1.5 mm (0.060 in.) Match 0.76 mm (0.030 in.) Warpage 1.2 mm (0.047 in.) max Flash extension 3.2 mm (0.125 in.) max (a) Forgings purchased in accordance with both the AMS and QQ-A-367 specifications. (b) Same alloy used in manufacture of prototypes. (c) Also applicable More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... the melt temperature of 151 °C (304 °F), which helps ensure a good bond between filaments. Fig. 3 Intermediate stage of second layer deposition showing temperature distribution in material extrusion modeling. Source: Ref 4 The last simulation model determined the residual stress and warpage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... is possible using glass that is in short, chopped fiber form or flake form. Glass fibers cause part warpage because of fiber orientation and loss of impact resistance. Glass flake causes some loss of impact resistance but increases stiffness and heat resistance and results in less warpage than fibers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006922
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., and part warpage. Ductility at fracture will likely be the most important property that will be reduced. However, strength at the knit line in flow regions during molding is also an important concern. Table 1 shows the loss in strength at the knit line for various plastic materials ( Ref 7 ). For example...
Book Chapter

By Paul T. Vianco
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... to the laminate, including warpage and distortion as well as delamination of the conductor, increases with higher solder temperatures. Continuous processing with wave soldering equipment can cause a build-up of contaminants in the solder pot (e.g., nickel, copper, and gold from circuit board and lead finishes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... of decarburizing, and discusses the problems caused by heating, cracking, quenching, typical steel grades, and design. cracking decarburization hardening heat treatment process design quenching residual stress size distortion steel steel selection tempering warpage Introduction Successful...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is that even if cracking does not occur, the transformation may create a distortion failure due to dimensional growth or warpage in a close-tolerance assembly, such as a precision bearing. When the temperature is changed, different coefficients of thermal expansion for different materials...