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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... also high because of the postfinishing labor and equipment required after molding. The SMC material must be stored properly to prevent thermal and moisture degradation. Cracking and warpage of the final part may result from using a degraded SMC sheet. Also, the SMC sheet-forming line must be properly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... size used. Any abrasive or shot blast cleaning may induce residual compressive stresses and warpage in the surface of the material, particularly thin sheet. Warpage also may occur in sections that are subsequently chemical milled or contour machined. Blast cleaning is not intended to eliminate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... approximately 45 changes of atmosphere per minute. Six common problems that may be encountered in heat treating magnesium alloys are oxidation, fusion voids, warpage, grain coarsening, germination, and inconsistent properties. Causes and prevention are discussed in Table 7 . Table 7 Causes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003094
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... selection for enameling; some steel sheet is not recommended because of problems that complicate the process of coating the sheet with porcelain enamel. The four major problems are: Distortion caused by sag and warpage occurring at the temperatures reached during firing of the enamel Improper...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... In the case of small, simple molds machined from heavy-wall seamless steel tubing, it has been standard practice not to stress relieve, because there is no apparent difference in the operational life of the mold. Stress relieving effectively prevents warpage in most molds and therefore prolongs the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... structure. To minimize heat, warpage, and surface damage in the workpiece—maintain wheel sharpness. If the grinding wheel breaks down too fast—use a wheel with a less friable abrasive, a harder grade, and a denser structure. If the grinding wheel glazes and burns—use a wheel with a more friable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... dimensional growth or warpage in a close-tolerance assembly, such as a precision bearing. When the temperature is changed, different coefficients of thermal expansion for different materials in a heterogeneous structure can cause interference between structural members (or can produce permanent distortion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... However, design—particularly if it entails thin webs—may contribute to warpage. Depending on the metal forged and other elements in the design, straightening a web deformed by residual stress may be difficult and costly. For many alloys, heat treatment—especially quenching—comprises a major source of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... necessary to review their experience with the warpage distortion of similarly shaped castings. Wood is used for both master patterns and production patterns because it is inexpensive and easy to shape ( Ref 1 ). However, wood patterns, especially those constructed from softer woods, are susceptible to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., was removed by slab milling the flat-back of the forging. This machining operation also opened the oval hole and compensated for warpage of the forging after heat treating. The cylindrical cavity at the center of the alloy A-286 bearing housing shown in Fig. 5(a) received a ball joint attachment...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... racking of the casting during heat treatment can minimize it, there is generally always some quench distortion or warpage of the casting during the steps leading up to the T4 temper. While in the T4 temper, the casting exhibits its maximum softness and ductility and thus is most easily straightened...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... to 1.02 mm (0.025 to 0.040 in.) thick are typical. Slow cooling minimizes warpage and promotes uniformity of structure and mechanical properties in the castings. Plaster molds are especially well suited to the use of chills, which permit close control of thermal gradients in the molds; this...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... specific gravity and the elevated heat of fusion are indicative that the material has a high level of crystallinity. In general, increased levels of crystallinity result in higher levels of molded-in stress and the corresponding warpage. The significant reduction in the modulus of the HDPE material, which...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... °C (1400 °F) for a minimum of 4 h and furnace cooling to 540 °C (1000 °F), followed by air cooling. An alternative treatment is to heat at 900 °C (1650 °F) for 2 h and furnace cool to 540 °C (1000 °F). These treatments stabilize the microstructure and minimize growth and warpage in service. The...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... mold, better feeding during solidification, and the elimination of defects due to shrinkage. A simple solution would be to increase the thickness of the webs between the bosses. This would permit better feeding of the casting, eliminating the shrinkage, and would reduce warpage in heat treatment...