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warm forging

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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 47 Warm precision forging of a 1.25% C ultrahigh-carbon steel billet into a bevel gear. Forging temperature was 650 °C (1200 °F). More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005884
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... the characteristics and processing considerations of each metal. It discusses forging because it is a versatile metalworking process and performed at cold, warm, and hot working temperatures. The article also presents the applications of steels, stainless steels, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, superalloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... or polymerbased lubricants and molybdenum disulfide for warm application; graphite suspensions in oil or water for hot forging steels; and glass films for titanium and superalloys hot forgings. The article describes the applications of lubricants in warm extrusion and forging, hot forging of steel, hot forging...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003990
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... materials should be annealed before forging or should be warm forged. Warm rotary forging is used when the material has a Rockwell C hardness greater than the mid-30s or when an unusually large amount of lateral movement in the workpiece is required. Materials are heated to a point below...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... new opportunities for the hot forger to produce tough, high-strength parts without special forging practices. Product evaluations of these microalloy steels indicate that they are comparable to conventional quenched and tempered steels. Warm forging continues to make steady progress as a cost...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005885
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... heating microstructure warm forming A DETAILED DESCRIPTION of the steels used in forging and other warm and hot working processes is provided in ASM Handbook , Volume 14A, Metalworking— Bulk Forming . This article focuses on the specific features of steels that are pertinent to heating...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Forging machines use a wide variety of hammers, presses, and dies to produce products with the desired shape, size, and geometry. This article discusses the major types of hammers (gravity-drop, power-drop, high speed, and open-die forging), and presses (mechanical, hydraulic, screw...
Image
Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 15 Monolithic all-cast channel or conveyor coil typically used to heat bar ends for warm and hot forging applications. Courtesy of Ajax Tocco Magnethermic More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... to evaluate the frictional conditions in hot forging, other tests have been developed. The warm hot upsetting sliding test ( Ref 44 ) is one such test, and die wear during warm forging can be quite different from that occurring during hot forging ( Ref 45 ). Attempts to mitigate the environmental effects...
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 48 Aft closure, for a guided missile, that was superplastically formed at 815 °C (1500 °F) from a 1.6% C ultrahigh-carbon steel. The processing procedure consisted of warm pressing (800 °C, or 1470 °F) liquid-atomized powders into a billet and forging the resulting billet into plate More
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 20 Side and end views of solid (a), and pierced and reverse extruded (b), conventional landing gear cylinder forgings. Test-coupon locations for the pierced and extruded forging are shown. See Table 3 for properties. See also Example 14. Dimensions in figure given in inches Item More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... was required. Forging Practices Carbon and alloy steels are by far the most commonly forged materials and are readily forged into a wide variety of shapes using hot-, warm-, or cold-forging processes and standard equipment. Section thickness, shape complexity, and forging size are limited primarily...
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 9 Nucleation of grain-boundary voids (cavitation) and triple-point cracks at warm and hot working temperatures. (a) Schematic illustration showing how grain-boundary voids are formed under the action of matrix deformation and how grain-boundary sliding in the absence of grain-boundary More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Niobium and its alloys, notably, Nb-1Zr and Nb-10Hf-1Ti, can be forged directly from the as-cast ingot. Most impression-die forging experience, however, has been with unalloyed niobium. Unalloyed niobium and Nb-1Zr can be cold worked or warmed slightly to less than 425 °C (800 °F) for forging...
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
in warm oil. Triple tempering was performed at about 565 °C (1050 °F) to produce the required mechanical properties. (h) Minimum property requirements parallel and transverse to forging flow lines, as obtained on test specimens from actual forgings hardened and tempered to a hardness of 40 to 44 HRC More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... obtained in production runs of specific cold-headed products. It concludes with a discussion on the applications of warm heading. bolt makers cold heading cold heading machine cutting to length defects descaling dies dimensional accuracy headers heat treating lubricating machining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Workability Tests for Hot/Warm Open-Die Forging of Recrystallized Structures Breakdown of coarse-grain cast structures to produce fine-grain wrought-and-recrystallized structures generally leads to improved workability in forging, as shown schematically in Fig. 1 . Even though most wrought metals can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... easier to forge to final form; see the section “Wrought CoCrMo (Low and High Carbon) (ASTM F799, F1537)” in this article. Cast high-carbon CoCrMo alloys continued to be the alloy of choice for making prosthetic joint replacements due to their better corrosion resistance compared to wrought CoCrWNi...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... Abstract This article introduces the basic characteristics, processes, and product forms associated with the five major categories of aluminum wrought products, namely, flat-rolled products (sheet, plate, and foil); rod, bar, and wire; tubular products; profiles; and forgings. It summarizes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article provides a discussion on the imperfections found in steel forgings. The problems encountered in sheet metal forming are also discussed. The article concludes with information on the causes of failure in cold formed parts. anisotropy blisters centerline shrinkage chemical segregation cold...