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warm compaction

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... (PM) compact Abstract Warm compaction uses both powder heating and die heating to effect higher component densities, whereas warm die compaction uses only die heating to achieve higher density. This article explains the influences of green and sintered properties and pore-free density during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... influence of compaction characteristics of stainless steel powders in tool materials selection, lubrication, annealing, double pressing/double sintering, and warm compaction. annealing apparent density compressibility double sintering flow rate green density green strength lubrication metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... nitriding powder forging powder metallurgy pressing quenching sinter hardening sintering steel tempering warm compaction HEAT TREATMENT OF POWDER METALLURGY (PM) parts can be exactly the same as other parts produced by other methods, but there are significant differences that must be taken into...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... hot pressing, cold hydrostatic pressing, powder-injection molding, warm and hot extrusion, powder rolling, slip casting, hot isostatic pressing, infiltration, sintering, and combination sintering-compacting. boride cermets carbide cermets carbonitride cermets cermets cutting tools...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Al and Al alloys (Al-Si cast alloys) Ref 9 , 10 20 mL reagent 7m + 80 mL H 2 O 5–10 s … Ref 7 B) 2 mL HF (40%) 3 mL HCl (38%) 20 mL HNO 3 (70%) 175 mL distilled H 2 O (Modifed 7m) 10–60 s Rinse in stream of warm water Form thin layer of etching products on the specimen surface Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... the method of lubrication ( Fig. 9 ), as well as with the type and amount of lubricant used. These parameters should be specified when reporting density values that are to be used to determine the compactibility of a metal powder. Warm compaction of the ferrous PM parts is a recent innovation that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... and other helical shapes Higher compaction pressures by using stronger tool materials, advanced pressure control methods, and die wall lubricants Better process control with computerized tool motion monitoring Warm compaction and improved “segregation-free” powders with enhanced flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-free density value can be reached during warm or warm-die compaction, whereas approximately 95 to 96% can be achieved during regular compaction processing. During compaction, powder particles deform plastically and work harden. Higher compacting pressures lead to increased green density accompanied...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... susceptible to cracking when quenched in warm oil (40 to 95 °C, or 100 to 200 °F) from the austenitizing temperature may be safely quenched in salt or oil at about 200 °C (400 °F). Elevator camshafts varying in length from 0.3 to 0.45 m (12 to 18 in.) and various sizes of wearchain components are examples of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Ceramic-forming processes usually start with a powder which is then compacted into a porous shape, achieving maximum particle packing density with a high degree of uniformity. This article compares and contrasts several forming processes, including mechanical consolidation, dry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Rivers process, licensed by Haynes International, uses methylcellulose as a binder, along with small amounts of water, glycerine, and boric acid. The methylcellulose dissolves in cold water to form a binder. Upon injection into a warm mold, it gels to form a fairly rigid part that can be removed from the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... sintering, or (2) powder production, warm compaction, and sintering. By cold pressing and sintering only, parts are produced to density levels of about 6.4 to 7.1 g/cm 3 , which is about 80 to 90% of theoretical density (the theoretical density of iron or low-carbon steel is about 7.87 g/cm 3 ). Warm...
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Over the years, many variants of the basic compaction and sintering process have been developed. In addition to new and stronger alloys, the high and full density processes (i.e., warm compaction, hot isostatic pressing, powder forging, powder injection molding, powder rolling, and powder extrusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., meant to preserve pore structures and keep them open for analysis. The article compares and contrasts the microstructures of nearly 50 powder metal alloys, using them to illustrate the effect of consolidation and compaction methods as well as particle size, composition, and shape. It discusses imaging...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...) Phenolic hot box Furan hot box Furan (furfuryl alcohol) warm box No-bake (self-setting) processes Furan/acid Phenolic/acid Alkaline phenolic/ester Silicate/ester Phenolic urethane/amine Polyolisocyanate Alumina phosphate The cold box and heat-cured (heat-activated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... to make an unwarranted assumption that cracking occurs first at the surfaces of hard and brittle coatings and then penetrates into the substrates to induce catastrophic failure of the coated parts. However, careful observation of the damage behaviors of shearing punches for high-strength steels, warm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006497
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... opportunity to improve gas mileage and thereby meet the government-mandated Corporate Automotive Fuel Efficiency standards. While these standards have the admirable intent of reducing greenhouse gases and thereby improving the environment and reducing global warming, the automotive industry faces many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... of warm compacted PM parts. (a) Torque converter hub. Courtesy of Chicago Powder Metal Products. (b) Transmission output shaft hub. Courtesy of GKN Sinter Metals. (c) Hand tool parts. Courtesy of PoriteTaiwan Co. Ltd. Abstract This article reviews various segments of the powder metallurgy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... 5710 400 58 14 (a) Balance N 2 . Source: Ref 4 Warm compaction is used to increase the green density and green strength of P/M steel parts. When combined with high-temperature sintering, this process can provide mechanical properties equivalent to double press-double sinter...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... first strike. Warm compaction (single pressed) 7.2–7.5 Specially formulated powders to obtain higher green strength at lower compaction pressure Warm compaction (double pressed) 7.4–7.7 … Cold densification (press, sinter, cold form, heat treat) 7.6–7.8 Cold forming improves fatigue and...