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volume fraction

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... particles or grains by a line of known length. grain size grain structure inclusion content microstructural parameters volume fraction QUANTIFYING MICROSTRUCTURAL PARAMETERS has received considerable attention in recent years and success in developing procedures and using such data to develop...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... test area P V mm −3 Number of points per unit test volume L mm Length of lineal elements, or test line length L L mm/mm Lineal fraction. Length of lineal intercepts per unit length of test line L A mm/mm 2 Length of lineal elements per unit test area L V...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article focuses on aspects important for the commercial production of castings. It discusses the modification process in hypoeutectic and eutectic alloys that differ only in the relative volume fraction of primary aluminum and aluminum-silicon eutectic. The article explains how...
Book Chapter

By P.S. Grant
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... process that always produces a wide range of droplet diameters. The article schematically illustrates typical log-normal droplet diameter probability density distribution on a mass or volume basis obtained by gas atomization. It also illustrates the changes in solid fraction during the spray casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... phase fractions by using atomic lattice data ( Ref 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 ). The approaches discussed in literature are not presented at this point; the focus here is on the data available to derive the volume changes caused by phase transformations to allow a more general approach. In Ref 25 , 26...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... experimental patterns, wall thicknesses would progressively increased or diminished, or revisions may be made to compensate for errors in calculating contraction, at a fraction of the cost entailed in revising production patterns. This method was used for the casting shown in Fig. 3 . Fig. 3 An aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... ) 0.007 to 0.03 (5 × 10 −5 to 2 × 10 −4 ) Ion current, mA/cm 2 (mA/in. 2 )   Fraction-exchange neutralized 0.1–2 (0.6–13) 0.05–0.40 Arrival ratio 0.1–1.5 Substrate temperature, °C (°F) <100 (<210) The IBAD process is a hybrid of PVD and ion implantation. It...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... yarns are interlaced. Braiding has many similarities to filament winding. Dry or prepreg yarns, tapes, or tow can be braided over a rotating and removable form or mandrel in a controlled manner to assume various shapes, fiber orientations, and fiber volume fractions. Although braiding cannot achieve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.9781627081757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... beta phase) at high temperatures. For pure titanium, this transformation occurs at 882 °C. In many titanium alloys, the beta phase is partially ilized at lower temperatures, and the equilibrium volume fractions of alpha and beta vary with temperature. The temperature at which a specific alloy becomes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... of a particle γ i , surface energy of the particle-matrix interface C v , cavity volume fraction C v o , initial cavity volume fraction D , diffusion coefficient δ, grain-boundary thickness δ ij , Kronecker delta ε ¯ , effective strain ε ¯ ˙ , effective strain rate ε 0...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... As a result, gray cast irons and ductile irons with composition close to or higher than the eutectic composition usually expand during solidification. This is because the volume fraction of the graphite phase is large enough that volume expansion due to graphite formation is larger than the volume...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... ) proposed that the volume fraction of solute phase in the eutectic structure will also influence the morphology of the eutectic structure. Hence, the morphology of the eutectic structure in a binary metallic system can be broadly classified as shown in Fig. 3 . In Fig. 3 , the regular or normal eutectic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... quench media, known as nanoquenchants, with varying cooling severities is feasible and would be extremely useful for quench heat treatment. Experiments on nanofluids have indicated that the additions of small volume fraction of nanoparticles into the base fluid have significant impact on the effective...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of solidification per unit volume, and df / dT is the volume fraction of solid formed at a changing temperature. The change in shape of the temperature-time curve now depends on the volume fraction of solid formed. The larger the rate of increase of volume fraction of solid, the smaller the slope...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... the formation of related alpha variants. In the specific work of Gey et al. ( Ref 69 ), therefore, the volume fractions of alpha variants for each beta crystal orientation were assigned in direct proportion to the relative activity on those slip systems that underwent a certain minimum shear strain...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... tensile strength and yield strength increase with an increase in reinforcement fraction. (It should be noted that these properties are decreased with an increase in volume fraction of soft particles, e.g., graphite.) The fracture toughness and ductility (percent elongation and strain to failure...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... solidify to α-crystals and then transform to stable β-crystals. Alloys between I and II also solidify to α-crystals, but they are partially transformed to β-crystals later. Fig. 2 Phase diagram with a peritectic reaction The volume fraction of each phase will be given by the lever rule if the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... phase. The role of carbon and carbides is paramount in these alloys. During solidification and subsequent cooling, carbides of various compositions are formed interdendritically and at grain boundaries. As carbon content and refractory element concentration are increased, the volume fraction of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... resolved and is approximated by microscopic models. Special algorithms have to be designed to integrate the evolution of the volume fraction of the phases present in the REV over time, as well as to integrate the kinetics of the development of envelopes defining the grains. Fig. 2 Schematic of a...