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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... covers (radomes). This article focuses on the microwave inspection methods that were subsequently developed for evaluation of moisture content in dielectric materials; thickness measurements of thin metallic coatings on dielectric substrates; and detection of voids, delaminations, macroporosity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and fracture. Next, the mechanisms of void nucleation and void coalescence are briefly described. Macroscale and microscale appearances of ductile and brittle fracture are then discussed for various specimen geometries (smooth cylindrical and prismatic) and loading conditions (e.g., tension...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and sintered PM parts: density variations, compaction and ejection cracks, microlaminations, poor degree of sintering, and voids from prior lubricant agglomerates. It describes the various methods applicable to green compacts: direct-current resistivity testing, radiographic techniques, computed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract The Atlas of Fractographs contains more than 1,300 fractographs, corresponding to 30 materials, including common grades of iron and steel, nonferrous metals and alloys, composites, and polymers. This article serves as the table of contents, describing how the information in the Atlas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
..., and chemical contaminants. When inspecting concrete prior to coating installation, three areas of concern exist: surface roughness, moisture content in concrete, and acidity/alkalinity of the surface. The article provides information on the industry standards for assessing surface cleanliness. It...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... describes the forms of embrittlement associated with carbon and low-alloy steels. The article provides information on the effect of composition, manufacturing practices, and microstructure on notch toughness of steels. Finally, it explains the effects of alloy elements, inclusion content, microstructure and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... volume, void content, and degree of cure are very difficult to relate to part performance because test panels are not totally representative of parts during the cure cycle. The use of trim tabs is a significant improvement on the in-process coupon method. A trim tab should be designed as a piece of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.9781627081757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... elemental fines where the void content must be minimal—the residual chloride content is a major factor in the amount of residual porosity of the final product. Contaminants are key in terms of the final fatigue properties that will be obtained (they are detrimental to the fatigue performance). Titanium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...; the greater the void content (lower the density), the lower the conductivity. Electrical conductivity of pure copper parts pressed at moderate pressures of 205 to 250 MPa (15 to 18 tsi) and sintered at 800 to 900 °C (1500 to 1650 °F) varies from 80 to 90% International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... products, which are derived from epoxies, are solids that may be useful as modifiers in composite applications. They are known commercially as phenoxy resins and have an insignificant epoxy content. The use of epoxy for composite applications can be generally classified into three areas: high...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... high-performance aircraft components. One process uses an RTM technique to impregnate a highly reinforced preform, which is then moved into a high-pressure autoclave, in which heat and pressure are used to reduce void content and to cure the part. Although this process has only low-volume capabilities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stainless steel. Marble’s etch Creep is caused by a combination of stress and temperature that exceeds the long-term strength limits of the material. The most severe form of creep is identified by voids forming at the grain boundaries. These voids appear in a zigzag pattern at an advanced stage. In...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...) 1350 160 1060 135 1100 135 3003 120 6063 100 6061 60 2011 35 5086 25 2014 20 5083 20 2024 15 7075 9 7178 8 In general, the higher the alloy content and strength, the greater the difficulty of extrusion and the lower the extrusion rate. The easily...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... SiC particles can affect void content ( Ref 89 ), dislocation density ( Ref 90 ), and the precipitation of active phases ( Ref 91 ) in aluminum matrices. Certain solution heat treatments and high extrusion ratios improved corrosion resistance of a 20 vol% SiC P /7091 Al MMC ( Ref 89 ). Extrusion...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... contents in the last liquid to solidify are high. This mechanism is supported by the observation that the voids in the casting are normally distributed along the grain boundaries, which are the last parts to solidify. Other gases that can cause porosity are sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide, which also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... stages. The most noticeable feature of the crystal structure is the degree of tetragonal distortion of martensite, which directly affects its specific volume ( Fig. 6 ). Usually, when the carbon content of steel is below 0.2 %, carbon atoms have a disordered distribution, and the degree of tetragonal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0006515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... ultraviolet v workpiece velocity V volt V f volume fraction of fiber V m volume fraction of matrix V v volume fraction of void content VCDO vinyl cyclohexene diepoxide VHP vacuum hot pressing VI viscosity index VLS vapor feed gases...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... materials with various binders ( Ref 2 ). Other high-stability refractories such as zirconia, thoria, and yttria have also been used to help prevent contamination of the casting by mold ( Ref 3 , 4 ). To minimize the contamination of the zirconium, investment casting includes controlling the ash content of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... extreme cases (such as this one) can lead to fracture of small index springs during coiling. SEM, 50× (J.H. Maker, Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc.) Fig. 614 Surface of a “rock candy” fracture in a bloom of AISI type 302 stainless steel. An abnormally high silicon content and inadvertent...