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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Characterization techniques used in tribology investigations (in increasing order of complexity) Tribology investigation Characterization technique Worn surfaces Visual inspection, roughness profiles Optical microscopy Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... crack velocity can be determined. There are basically three methods to monitor the growth of stress-corrosion cracks: visual/optical measurements, measurement of the crack-opening displacement using clip gages, and the potential drop measurement, which monitors the increase in resistance across two on...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... essential for quality control of the case hardening process and for evaluation of workpieces for conformance with specifications. The article also discusses various case depth measurement methods, including chemical, mechanical, visual, and nondestructive methods. carbonitriding carburizing case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... typical types of damage experienced for metallic components. This article discusses the processes involved in visual or macroscopic examination of damaged material; the interpretation of fracture features, corrosion, and wear damage features; and the analysis of base material composition. It covers the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... discussion about the concept of the probability of detection (POD), on which the statistical reliability of crack detection is based. The coverage includes the various methods of surface inspection, including visual-examination tools, scanning technology in dimensional metrology, and the common methods of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... testing. If flaws are detected, they must then be evaluated relative to their size, location, growth rate, growth mechanism, and likelihood that they are or will become a liability to the function or performance of a component. NDE comprises a large family of specific test disciplines including visual...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... failure. Learn all you can about the procedure used to manufacture the failed part. Visual examination: Visit the scene, make sketches, and take measurements, notes, and photographs. Select the parts to be removed for laboratory investigation. Carefully examine all parts in the laboratory...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... design, inadequate instructions for use, insufficient warnings, and even inappropriate advertising or marketing ( Ref 16 ). Identification of a defect in a litigation context may be used to establish legal liability. Similar linguistic nuances may occur in the basic definitions and interpretations of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the first steps of any scene investigation is to obtain a permanent record of the accident scene by visual documentation, such as photography and/or videography and scanning. It is important that visual documentation be performed as early as possible, preferably prior to any altering of the scene...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the deposit. Counters may incorporate set points with visual and/or audio warnings to indicate when the desired thickness has been reached. Optional microprocessor-controlled systems reduce the chance of miscalculation and allow continuous monitoring of the process via an alphanumeric readout. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... agreement. The various tests that can be performed during an investigation, including visual examination, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, quantitative chemical analysis, metallography, hardness testing, mechanical testing such as impact and tensile testing, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... noise sources often provide characteristically different waveforms, they can often be separated from true AE by visual inspection of the waveforms on the computer screen ( Ref 33 ). There are also techniques for eliminating noise by software (based on the measured signal features) either at the point of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-effect sensors, and magnetic-particle techniques), ultrasonic, acoustic emission, guided wave, laser testing, microwave, radiographic, thermal and infrared testing, x-ray diffraction, and visual inspection. Selection of the NDT method depends on product manufacturing specifications and requirements, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... compressed air rather than thrown by a centrifugal wheel, but test data show comparable performance. Some applicators use automated equipment. After abrasive grit-blast cleaning, the prepared area again must be visually inspected for weld spatter or sharp edges. If smoothing techniques destroy the anchor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... III-V growth systems use toxic gases such as AsH 3 and PH 3 . Monitoring systems that are used to detect the presence of both AsH 3 and PH 3 provide a nearly instantaneous readout of concentration and initiate both warning and alarm signals whenever the preprogrammed concentration level for a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... widely used are visual inspection, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy current, ultrasonic, and radiographic methods. Table 2 (also see Ref 11 ) provides a brief definition of these methods and their uses and limitations. Considerably more detail on these and other techniques can be found in...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... selector and delay to adjust time base and that portion of the inspection zone that is to be displayed Gate-position control to isolate the portion of the inspection zone that will be used for additional processing Oscilloscope, which provides the visual display of the time and amplitude parameters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... flow of atmosphere through the furnace and adjoining cold chamber or vestibule can then be burned. An ignited effluent m an atmosphere furnace is an immediate visual sign that a safe condition prevails. Always follow the manufacturer's instructions. Many of the gases making up furnace atmospheres...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... degreaser is a warning sign that water is not being properly removed. If water is allowed to accumulate in the degreaser, the boiling point of the solvent may drop due to the formation of the solvent-water azeotrope. The direct results are poor cleaning, greater solvent losses, water spotting, and more odor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... first appeared in the 1960s and, when originally applied, its textured appearance was visually discernible. However, at present, on many bridges today (2014) weathering or incomplete coating removal has smoothed the original texture, making coatings containing asbestos visually indistinguishable from...