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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Visual inspection (VI) is the oldest inspection technique man has used as a quality-control tool to evaluate products, assess their final form in terms of fabrication accuracy and external features based on experience, and decide on their acceptance or rejection. This article discusses...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Visual inspection is a nondestructive testing technique that provides a means to detect and examine a variety of surface flaws, such as corrosion, contamination, surface finish, and surface discontinuities. This article discusses the equipment used to aid visual inspection, including...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... visual inspection, and non-invasive inspection. Inspection execution, risk-based inspection, competence assurance of inspection personnel, inspection coverage, inspection periodicity, inspection anomaly criteria, assessment of fitness, and reporting requirements, are also discussed. The article addresses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., and image interpretation. The article provides information on the uses of machine vision systems in three categories of manufacturing applications: visual inspection, identification of parts, and guidance and control applications. machine vision quality control image acquisition visual inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... to the inspection of bonded structures, including visual inspection, ultrasonic inspection, X-ray radiography, and neutron radiography. The evaluation and correlation of inspection results are also discussed. The article concludes with information on the effects of ultrasonic wave interference in the ultrasonic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... often can be seen by visual inspection, but other techniques include liquid penetrant, eddy-current, and magnetic-particle inspection. All of these inspection methods require clean and relatively smooth surfaces for effective results. Eddy-current inspection and magnetic-particle inspection also can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract This article begins with an overview of various types of damage. These include holes and punctures, delaminations, disbonds, core and resin damage, and water intrusion. The article describes various damage detection techniques, such as visual inspection, tap testing, and ultrasonic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract Mechanical and environmental loadings cause a variety of failure modes in composites, including matrix cracking, fiber-matrix debonding, delamination between plies, and fiber breakage. This article summarizes visual analysis and nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Failure analysis is an investigative process that uses visual observations of features present on a failed component fracture surface combined with component and environmental conditions to determine the root cause of a failure. The primary means of recording the conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fractures, and high-temperature fractures. brittle fracture cold cracking deep-field microscopy ductile fracture embrittlement etching fatigue fracture fracture replica light microscopy macroscopic examination quality control taper sectioning visual inspection THE VISUAL EXAMINATION...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., radiographic testing, and ultrasonic testing. Although visual inspection is not strictly a test method, it does have an important role in NDE procedures and is often the only inspection method used. Acoustic emission (AE) testing and leak testing are described separately, because they are somewhat different...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-effect sensors, and magnetic-particle techniques), ultrasonic, acoustic emission, guided wave, laser testing, microwave, radiographic, thermal and infrared testing, x-ray diffraction, and visual inspection. Selection of the NDT method depends on product manufacturing specifications and requirements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005857
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Microhardness per standard 1/each setup Pattern Visual 1/each setup Microstructure Microscope 1/each setup Surface crack Magnetic particle inspection 1/each setup Periodic in-process inspection Surface hardness Microhardness tester 1/each hour Case depth Microhardness per standard...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006468
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Magnetic-particle inspection is a method of locating surface and subsurface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials. This article discusses the applications and advantages and limitations of magnetic-particle inspection. It describes magnetic fields in terms of magnetized ring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... The nondestructive inspection of bars and other semifinished products does not impair the product, provides rapid feedback of information, and can be utilized as either an in-line or off-line system. It makes use of several devices, such as visual, audio, and electromagnetic, for the detection of flaws...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... different waveforms, they can often be separated from true AE by visual inspection of the waveforms on the computer screen ( Ref 33 ). There are also techniques for eliminating noise by software (based on the measured signal features) either at the point of measurement (front-end filtering), or as a prelude...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article reviews nondestructive testing (NDT) and inspection techniques, namely liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, ultrasonics, X-ray, eddy current, visual and radiography that are commonly used to detect and evaluate flaws or leaks in an engineering system. This article compares...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... surface flaws to form visible indications of such flaws. Longer times could be necessary for tight cracks. The developer also provides a uniform background to assist visual inspection. After being sufficiently developed, the surface is visually examined for indications of penetrant bleedback from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... testing methods, namely, magnetic particle testing, ultrasonic testing, and eddy current testing to evaluate induction-hardened components. case depth frequency induction hardening inductors inspection nondestructive testing quenching surface hardness evaluation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article considers the two primary methods used for ultrasonic inspection: pulse-echo and the transmission methods. Pulse-echo inspection can be accomplished with longitudinal, shear, surface (Rayleigh), or Lamb (plate) waves using a diverse range of transducers. The article...