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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... indicator runout of vertical scanners. It presents information on the frequency selection parameters for scanning applications. The article also discusses the critical parameters and production rates in specifying and developing a tooth-by-tooth hardening process. frequency gears horizontal scanners...
Image
Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 1 Moving transformer vertical scanner More
Image
Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 2 Central mounted vertical scanner tower assembly More
Image
Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 3 Components of an atomic force microscope (AFM) stage. A mechanical structure supports both the force sensor and the xyz piezoelectric scanner. The vertical resolution of an AFM is primarily established by the rigidity of the mechanical structure. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... piezoelectric scanner. The vertical resolution of an AFM is primarily established by the rigidity of the mechanical structure. All AFMs have an xyz scanner for moving the probe and/or sample relative to each other. These scanners have a range of typically less than 100 μm in the xy -axis and less than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Binnig et al. ( Ref 1 ) introduced vacuum tunneling combined with lateral scanning. The vacuum provides the ideal barrier for tunneling. The lateral scanning allows surface imaging with exquisite resolution—lateral less than 1 nm and vertical less than 0.1 nm—sufficient to define the position of single...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005852
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
..., productivity, repeatability, and ease of setup. The controls for the more common types of induction hardeners are discussed subsequently. Scanner Systems Scanners are widely used for induction heating. Scanners are very versatile and can be used for either vertical or horizontal applications. Typical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... microscopy printer quantization resolution sampling scanners scanning electron microscopy transmission electron microscopy video capture DEVELOPMENTS IN COMPUTER HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE have contributed to major changes in materials characterization in the last decade. Electronic acquisition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... body scanners, space shuttle foam inspection, in situ nondestructive evaluation of concrete rebar, moisture detection in composites, paint thickness Cannot penetrate conductive metals High-quality imaging can be performed at distance. No ionizing radiation, so harmless to people at common energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-wall nonferromagnetic tube, with reactance values plotted as ordinates (vertical axes) and resistance values plotted as abscissas (horizontal axes), is shown in Fig. 13 . When a tube being inspected has zero conductance (the empty-coil condition), the impedance point is at A. The coil input impedance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., micrometers, ring gages, rulers, bore gages, fixed gages, or vertical height gages, have the advantages of low cost, high portability, and adaptability. Their disadvantages include slow speed of inspection and inspector variability. Contact sensors such as coordinate-measuring machines (CMMs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... images during the rotation of the specimen or the scanner, followed by a reconstruction of a three-dimensional (3D) image ( Ref 3 , 4 ). It gives highly resolved 3D images of the tested samples. Ultrasonic testing (UT) is another method used for AM components ( Ref 5 ) in many industries such as power...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... of Image Analyzers Image analyzers ( Ref 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ) have progressed considerably since their commercial introduction in 1963. The early systems used conventional television scanners for image detection. These scanners did not provide adequate resolution along and across the scan line...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., Ltd., in England developed the first commercial XCT system, also known as a computerized assisted tomography scanner ( Ref 6 ). Commercial CT scanners also found increased acceptance with the availability of inexpensive computing power, and industrial testing was considered an appropriate application...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... this curve to the specific composite and lay-up in use. In the aerospace industry and other industries as well, automated ultrasonic inspection is the principle inspection method for testing and accepting fiber-reinforced composites. Automated scanners are employed that acquire TT, PE, or combined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006887
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... sections are successively stored using a slicing application. The vertical interval is initially set at a constant value. Thereafter, polygonal profiles are numerically saved as datasets of the vertex coordinates, and raster patterns are evenly hatched using a plotting application. The parallel lines...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and other industries as well, automated ultrasonic inspection is the principal inspection method for testing and accepting fiber-reinforced composites. Automated scanners are employed that acquire TT, PE, or combined ultrasonic measurements over an entire structure at high speed. Automated ultrasonic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.9781627081900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... and translucent materials. For low-magnification work (stereomicroscopy), external, oblique illumination is typically reflected off the sample into the objective. For higher magnifications, the source light is often directed vertically through the microscope objective to the sample. Magnification of the sample...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... data obtained through Fourier analysis of the ultrasonic waveform or from an evaluated feature extracted from either the time or frequency domain. The C-scan is formed by scanning the transducer over the entire surface of the component under inspection using either an x-y scanner or some type...