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vertical planes

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... element to which back draft is applied have an included angle not less than 14°, and the fillet radius applied to the acute angle be at least 1.5 times that typical for the design. An acute angle of 80° from the forging plane or 10° from vertical is suggested as a maximum practical limit for back draft...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... surfaces that are neither planar nor perpendicular to the direction in which the forging force is applied. Dies that have a change in the plane of their mating surfaces, and that therefore mesh (“lock”) in a vertical direction when closed, are called locked dies. In forging with locked dies, side or end...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... cylinders, seamless tubes, and a variety of pressure vessels can be produced in a hydraulic press with multiple rams. The rams converge on the workpiece in vertical and horizontal planes, alternately or in combination, and fill the die by displacement of metal outward from a central cavity developed by one...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... bottom of a vertical cavity or impression. Fillets are illustrated in the sectional view of forging ribs in Fig. 1 . Corners and fillets are classified as horizontal or vertical ( Fig. 2 ). When they connect a web and a rib, they extend horizontally, corresponding to the forging plane. When they...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract After solidification and cooling, further processing and finishing of the castings are required. This article describes the general operations of shakeout, grinding, cleaning, and inspection of castings, with particular emphasis on automation technology. It illustrates the vertical...
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Ring rolling is a process for creating seamless ring shaped components using specialized equipment and forming processes. This article provides information on the applications of ring rolling. It discusses the types of machines used for ring rolling, namely, vertical rolling machines...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., compression test, and bend test. It examines specialized tests including plane-strain compression test, partial-width indentation test, secondary-tension test, and ring compression test. The article explains that workability is determined by two main factors: the ability to deform without fracture and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... tests, such as the tension test, ring compression test, plane-strain compression test, bend test, indentation test, and forgeability test. It concludes with information on the role of the finite-element modeling software used in workability analysis. bend test bulk forming processes cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Control of grain flow is one of the major advantages of shaping metal parts by rolling, forging, or extrusion. This article shows the effects of anisotropy on mechanical properties. Cylindrical forgings commonly have a straight parting line located in a diametral plane. The alternate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... composition plane forms the base of the figure, and temperature is measured vertically. Here, the liquidus and solidus become surfaces bounding the L + α space. Above the liquidus, all alloys are fully molten; low the solidus, all are completely solid. As in binary systems, the two-phase region L + α is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... the projection plane. Statistically, the angular dependence of L ϕ is averaged in a vertical plane defined by L ϕ , while L c must be averaged in three dimensions, amounting to a difference of up to 23%. This elementary distinction has not been recognized in work purported as three...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...(a) illustrates two light beams with the same frequency moving along the same path, one polarized in the vertical plane and the other polarized perpendicular to the vertical plane. In this case, the maxima of the two beams coincide (i.e., the phase is the same). These two beams can be combined to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... scratches (vertical lines) at a grain boundary (diagonal line). Not polished, not etched. Original magnification 250×. Courtesy of A.W. Mullendore In polycrystalline metals, grain-boundary sliding is constrained to small amounts by irregularities in the boundary plane and by adjacent grains that block...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... vertical plane, coupled with an acceptance angle of typically a few milliradians in the horizontal plane) of the synchrotron beam allows the use of very long beamlines (~25 to 50 m, or 85 to 165 ft) to maximize the area of the beam delivered at the sample without incurring significant losses in total...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... across a grain on a single plane would be expected to result in smooth fracture surfaces. Such results are sometimes observed in high-purity, single-crystal specimens but are seldom seen in commercial engineering materials. Commercial engineering materials contain both a distribution of inclusions and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... orientation and the grain size in the surface plane (but not in the vertical direction) can be measured. Low-energy electron diffraction (or more commonly RHEED) also can be combined with the evaporator to study the microstructure of the growing film in real time. Fig. 16 Schematic diagram of a thin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... mounted on a rigid stand. Courtesy of Wild Heerbrugg Lens Eq 1 , 2 , 3 , and 4 show the relationships among the object-to-lens distance (object distance, S o ), the lens-to-film-plane distance (image distance, S i ), lens focal length, f, and camera magnification, M c : (Eq 1) 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... conducting a failure analysis. Both plane stress and plane strain are explored, and instances in which seemingly appropriate two-dimensional analyses lead to erroneous results are presented. Three-dimensional stress transformations are discussed, and a procedure to obtain the principal stresses and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... planes, and since a threshold shear stress is required to activate dislocations, it turns out that the orientation of the crystals will affect the stress required to deform the aggregate. As a consequence, there is a direct connection between texture and anisotropic mechanical response. Anisotropy means...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... These concepts provide a basis to define a critical stress-intensity factor, K c , for the onset of crack growth as a material property independent of specimen size and geometry for many conditions of loading and environment. In general, when the specimen thickness and the in-plane dimensions near the...