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variable-volume rubber method

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... two basic methods, such as the trapped or fixed volume rubber method and the variable-volume rubber method, of elastomeric tooling, which use the principles of thermal expansion molding. The significant properties and controlling equations that are required to characterize elastomeric tooling material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... as the forming of deeply recessed taillight reflectors for automobiles, and the deep drawing of toaster shells ( example 3 ). The application of rubber pads in press-brake dies is discussed in the article “Press-Brake Forming” in this Volume. In the past, flexible-die forming methods were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... ) is a major industrial chemical. It follows sulfuric and nitric acids in importance and tonnage produced. Phosphoric acid is made from phosphate rock by two methods: the wet process and electric furnace. Phosphoric acid is not a particularly strong acid. It is a stronger acid than acetic acid but...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Galvanizing is applied by either of two methods: batch galvanizing or continuous galvanizing. Batch galvanizing involves cleaning of the steel to be protected, applying a flux to the surface of the zinc bath, and immersing the steel item through the flux into the molten bath of zinc for various periods of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... other NDT methods are, however, being considered for thermal spray coating analysis. Some of these are summarized briefly as follows. Additional information on NDT techniques can be found in the article “Postcoating Operations” in this Volume. Before discussing wear testing, it is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... variety of sizes and shapes can be formed in thin stainless steel by drop hammer forming. The advantages of this method include high impact energy (which often means that a piece can be formed by one blow, as compared to four or five by other processes) and suitability to low-volume and experimental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... hardness tests include a pendulum test method and dynamic indentation hardness testing using a Hopkinson-bar technique (the article “Dynamic Indentation Testing” in this Volume contains details). The durometer is a hand-sized instrument that measures the indentation hardness of rubber and plastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
..., rubber-pad forming, and other methods ( Fig. 2 ). Sheet-forming methods can also be classified according to suitable methods in obtaining desired dimensional features, such as surface contours or deep recesses ( Table 1 ). Some methods of local deformation also extend beyond sheet forming to the bending...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... the article “High-Velocity Metal Forming” in this Volume. Another high-energy-rate forming (HERF) method used in the fabrication of aluminum alloy parts is electrohydraulic forming (EHF). In this process, either a spark gap or an exploding bridgewire is employed to discharge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... pressure on radii formed in 1.60 mm (0.063 in.) thick titanium alloy sheets at room temperature Springback behavior of titanium and its alloys in rubber-pad forming differs somewhat from that observed in other methods of forming. In general, springback in forming titanium varies directly with the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... machines used for producing parts from sheet metal. Power presses can be classified according to the following characteristics: source of power, type of frame, method of actuation of slides, and number of slides in action. Presses in any of these classes are available in a range of capacities (tonnage or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Mechanical Testing and Evaluation , Volume 8 of ASM Handbook , 2000. Other test methods used to assess sheet metal forming characteristics are the plastic-strain ratio ( r ), which is a measure of sheet anisotropy; the limiting draw ratio (LDR); bulge height; and minimum bend-forming radius. Comparison of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... lost foam casting metallic molds no-bake process permanent mold casting plaster casting sand molds semisolid casting vacuum molding MOLDING METHODS and materials encompass a wide range of options. Some molding (casting) processes are centuries old, while others did not exist two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article describes various methods of electrochemical analysis, namely coulometry, electrogravimetry, voltammetry, electrometric titration, and nanometer electrochemistry. The discussion covers the general uses, sample requirements, application examples, advantages, and limitations...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (see the article “Lubricant Analysis” in Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology , Volume 18, ASM Handbook ) is also a method to measure wear, as is surface layer activation by radionulcides. Table 1 Common units for reporting wear and wear rates Wear category Subcategory Wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Frictional Properties using the British Pendulum Tester Rubber versus pavement (BPN, British p Pendulum Number) E670 (E-17 on traveled surfaces) Side Force Friction on Paved Surfaces using the Mu-Meter Tires versus pavement (μ) ( F dry – F wet ) F609 Test Method for Static Slip Resistance...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article discusses the deformation and viscoelastic characteristics of plastics as polymeric materials, focusing on the test methods used for the evaluation of their mechanical properties, methods available for analytically predicting the deformation response of polymers, and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... where ventilation is inadequate to ensure that air contaminants will not accumulate. Engineering controls (enclosures and/or hoods with ducted, mechanical ventilation of sufficient volume to remove contaminants from the work space) are the most-desired methods of preventing job-related illness resulting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... processes described in the article “Finishing Methods Using Defined Cutting Edges” in this Volume. Typical grinding processes are shown in Fig. 5 . Each of these applications can range from rough grinding to precision grinding to high-precision processes. Many of these operations in rough grinding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... described in the preceding article “Introduction to the Mechanical Behavior of Nonmetallic Materials” in this Volume. This article briefly reviews the general mechanical properties and test methods for polymers and ceramics. Additional coverage is also provided in other Sections of this Volume on hardness...