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variable-amplitude load

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Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 9 Striation pattern corresponding to periodic variable-amplitude load sequence. Fatigue crack in 2024-T3 sheet. Courtesy of the National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, Amsterdam More
Image
Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 11 Simple variable-amplitude load sequences. Source: Ref 22 More
Image
Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 12 Examples of more complex variable-amplitude load histories for fatigue tests. (a) Program loading with Lo-Hi-Lo sequence of S a′ (b) Randomized block loading. (c) Narrow-band random loading. (d) Broad-band random loading. (e) Simple flight simulation loading. All flights are equal More
Image
Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 44 Variable-amplitude load with cycle-by-cycle variation of S op More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002356
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Abstract This article summarizes fatigue phenomena in metallic materials. It discusses fatigue under variable-amplitude (VA) loading, with emphasis on crack growth. The article presents the prediction models of crack initiation and crack growth under VA loading. It concludes with a discussion...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 3 Variable-amplitude loading data. Source: Ref 6 More
Image
Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 2 Variable-amplitude loading and schematic of data presentation. (a) Alternating load varying with time. (b) Fracture of one specimen plotted by maximum alternating load ( S * a ) vs. number of cyles, N. (c) Fracture of ten specimens plotted vs. S * a and cycles to failure More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... property data and geometry factors to analyze any fracture or crack growth problem. It describes the integration of crack growth rates in terms of constant-amplitude loading and cycle-by-cycle counting with variable-amplitude loading. The article concludes with information on the classification of sources...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... on their manner of use and limitations. The use of the Palmgren-Miner rule for life prediction for variable amplitude loading is also discussed. fatigue life Palmgren-Miner rule strain-based approach stress-based approach variable amplitude load FATIGUE LIFE ESTIMATES are often needed...
Image
Published: 01 January 2024
Fig. 11 SEM and deep-focus optical fractography examples of changes in fatigue fracture surface orientations due to load history variations. (a) Changes in overall fracture planes for AA7075-T6 aluminum alloy thin plate when a simple flight-by-flight variable-amplitude load sequence More
Image
Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 6 Use of the Palmgren-Miner rule for life prediction for variable amplitude loading that is completely reversed. Source: Ref 1 (p 383) More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 3 Examples of variable-amplitude fatigue loading. (a) Single high-cycle superimposed loading. (b) Multiple high-cycle superimposed loading. (c) Variable multiple high-cycle superimposed loading. Adapted from Ref 3 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... variable-amplitude loading the very existence of an endurance limit depends on all the stresses staying below it ( Ref 4 , 5 ). The simple schematic of Fig. 1 is therefore a poor model for the complexity of a variable-amplitude fatigue analysis, which is discussed in more detail in the articles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... be considered an important activity to confirm the calculations. For the sake of brevity, we limit our discussion to constant-amplitude loading. Often, variable-amplitude loading is necessary to correctly replicate structural situations. It is essential to understand that variable-amplitude loading can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002372
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... the factors that are known to influence the severity of fretting and discusses the variables that contribute to shear stresses. These variables include normal load, relative displacement (slip amplitude), and coefficient of friction. The article describes the general geometries and loading conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0009217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... by a structural detail will, in general, result from variable amplitude loading rather than constant-amplitude loading. Before a crack growth calculation can be made, a representation of the variable-amplitude stress history that summarizes the history in terms of a sequence of complete stress cycles in proper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... is seldom the case in service. The first additional loading term that must be included is the stress ratio, R = σ min /σ max , of the loading. Stress ratio has a pronounced effect on the crack-growth rate, and any variable-amplitude-load crack-growth model first must address this behavior. Walker ( Ref 11...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article reviews the general characteristics of fretting wear in mechanical components with an emphasis on steel. It focuses on the effects of physical variables and the environment on fretting wear. The variables include the amplitude of slip, normal load, frequency of vibration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... ability to deal with variable-amplitude loading through improved cumulative damage assessment. Cyclic plasticity responses are accounted for, and load sequence effects are reflected in the analysis and results, one area where the concepts of reversals and the development of closed loops remain important...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... toughness Plane-strain fracture toughness Constant-amplitude fatigue crack initiation and growth Variable-amplitude fatigue crack initiation and growth The subjects of sustained-load cracking and stress-corrosion cracking, creep crack growth, creep-fatigue behavior, and thermal fatigue...