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variable amplitude load

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002356
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... joints, geometrical aspects of weld toe, etc.) Environmental factors Table 3 Specific interaction phenomena during crack growth under variable-amplitude loading Observation Related aspects 1. Crack growth retardation or acceleration after overloads Delayed retardation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... factors to analyze any fracture or crack growth problem. It describes the integration of crack growth rates in terms of constant-amplitude loading and cycle-by-cycle counting with variable-amplitude loading. The article concludes with information on the classification of sources of error in damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... of the fatigue notch factor with life. The S - N data in (a) are used to obtain k ′ f = σ a / S a in (b). The notches are half-circular cutouts. Source: Ref 1 (p 409) Fig. 6 Use of the Palmgren-Miner rule for life prediction for variable amplitude loading that is completely reversed. Source...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002372
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... the variables that contribute to shear stresses. These variables include normal load, relative displacement (slip amplitude), and coefficient of friction. The article describes the general geometries and loading conditions for fretting fatigue. It presents the types of fretting fatigue tests and the effect...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article reviews the general characteristics of fretting wear in mechanical components with an emphasis on steel. It focuses on the effects of physical variables and the environment on fretting wear. The variables include the amplitude of slip, normal load, frequency of vibration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
.... , Nelson D.V. , and Cornell C.A. , Variable Amplitude Load Models for Fatigue Damage and Crack Growth , Development of Fatigue Loading Spectra , STP 1006, Potter J.R. and Watanabe R.T. , Ed., American Society for Testing and Materials , 1989 , p 172 – 197 31. Efron B...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0009217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Aircraft Structures,” AFWAL-TR-82-3073, Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories , Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH , Oct 1982 19. Barsom J.M. , Fatigue Crack Growth Under Variable Amplitude Loading in ASTM A514-B Steel , in Progress in Flaw Growth and Fracture Toughness Testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... features to these difficulties. Certainly verification of life estimations should be considered an important activity to confirm the calculations. For the sake of brevity, we limit our discussion to constant-amplitude loading. Often, variable-amplitude loading is necessary to correctly replicate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
.... , Kearney V.E. , and Engle R.M. , Trans. ASME, Series D, J. Basic Eng. , Vol 89 ( 3 ), 1967 , pp. 459 – 464 . 10.1115/1.3609637 13. Schive J. and Broek D. , Crack-Propagation Tests Based on a Gust Spectrum with Variable Amplitude Loading , Aircr. Eng. , Vol 34 , 1962...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... of the strain-life method is its ability to deal with variable-amplitude loading through improved cumulative damage assessment. Cyclic plasticity responses are accounted for, and load sequence effects are reflected in the analysis and results, one area where the concepts of reversals and the development...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...)                                           a ≅ 0.0254 [ 3.7 ] 1.8 ≅ 0.27 mm K f ≅ 1 + ( 2.5 − 1 ) ( 1 + 0.27 / 0.20 ) = 1.6 Applied stress effects include variations in mean stress, variable amplitude loading, and the differences between torsion and bending. Mean stress effects are commonly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... variable-amplitude loading? What was the spectrum? What was the failure criterion? If there were runouts, how were they handled and represented? If the data found describe a thin sheet response, it is the wrong data. If the product form is correct, but the plot represents testing done at R...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Fatigue load ratio Fatigue load waveform Maximum stress-intensity factor and stress-intensity-factor range Load interactions in variable amplitude loading (over/under/spectrum load) Residual stress Geometrical Variables Crack size Crack geometry Specimen thickness (plane strain...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Crack Growth Under Variable-Amplitude Loading , Fatigue and Fracture , Vol 19 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1996 , p 110 – 133 15. Fatigue Failures, Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , Metals Handbook ( 9th ed. ) American Society for Metals , 1986 , p 102 – 135 16...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... S-N curve for unnotched 2024-T4 aluminum alloy bar. Source: Ref 2 While constant-amplitude loading is useful for defining fatigue properties and comparing test data, variable-amplitude loading, such as that shown in Fig. 3 , is more likely to be encountered by structural components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... diagram). Because in most technical structures the stress amplitude is often not constant but will randomly vary under actual loading conditions, it is necessary to predict fatigue life not only under constant but as well as under variable stress amplitudes. The principle of lifetime determination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for Metals , 1985 13. Stulen F.B. and Schulte W.C. , Fatigue Failure Analysis and Prevention , Source Book in Failure Analysis , American Society for Metals , 1974 14. Schijve J. , Fatigue Crack Growth Under Variable-Amplitude Loading , Fatigue and Fracture , Vol 19...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...; in general, polymers are more sensitive to the testing environment than metal or ceramic counterparts. These variables include the stress or strain amplitude of the loading cycle; the mean stress of the cycle; the presence of stress concentrations or initial defects in the component; the frequency...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...-intensity factor for static loading and plane-stress conditions of variable constraint (i.e., this value depends on specimen thickness and geometry, as well as on crack size) K Ic = critical stress-intensity factor for static loading and plane-strain conditions of maximum constraint K Id...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... cycling at an effective strain amplitude of 0.008. Source: Ref 51 Fig. 25 Cyclic hardening of annealed type 304 stainless steel: True effective stress (for uniaxial monotonic loading with strain rate cycling between 1.5 × 10 −3 and 1.5 × 10 −5 1/s), effective stress (uniaxial completely...