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vapor-phase growth

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article describes the vapor-phase growth techniques applied to the epitaxial deposition of semiconductor films and discusses the fundamental processes involved in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). It reviews the thermodynamics that determine the driving force behind...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article focuses on transport phenomena and modeling approaches that are specific to vapor-phase processes (VPP). It discusses the VPP for the synthesis of materials. The article reviews the basic notions of molecular collisions and gas flows, and presents transport equations. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article describes eight stages of the atomistic film growth: vaporization of the material, transport of the material to the substrate, condensation and nucleation of the atoms, nuclei growth, interface formation, film growth, changes in structure during the deposition, and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Metal matrix composites (MMCs) can be synthesized by vapor phase, liquid phase, or solid phase processes. This article emphasizes the liquid-phase processing where solid reinforcements are incorporated in the molten metal or alloy melt that is allowed to solidify to form a composite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... descaling, pickling or etching, anodizing, autoclaving, polishing, buffing, vapor phase nitriding, and electroplating. It also provides several application examples. anodizing autoclaving blast cleaning buffing chemical descaling cleaning electroplating etching finishing forming hafnium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Laser-ultrasonics is a particular implementation of ultrasonic nondestructive inspection in which ultrasound is generated and detected by lasers. This article discusses the various mechanisms that ensure ultrasound generation and explains the possibility to get the equivalent of phase...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the underlying mechanisms and kinetics and the relationship between grain growth and densification. densification gas pressure sintering grain growth hot isostatic pressing liquid-phase sintering reaction sintering sintering sol-gel processing solid-state sintering technical ceramics...
Book Chapter

By Donald M. Mattox
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article begins with a list of the factors that influence the properties of physical vapor deposited films. It describes the steps involved in ion plating, namely, surface preparation, nucleation, interface formation, and film growth. The article discusses the factors influencing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... reactions where liquid phase combines with a solid phase and forms a second solid phase. The second solid phase forms in between the liquid and the first solid phase. Zinc in amounts up to 15 wt% produces only a slight lowering of liquidus temperature. Zinc also has a high vapor pressure in the molten...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... elongated shear dimples. Apparently, few of these are nucleated by second-phase particles. It should be noted that this specimen is relatively thin, and that, for the high Δ K involved, fatigue growth is under plane-stress conditions. This contributes to the shear dimples noted in Fig. 6(b) . At much...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... alloys, and the effects of cold work on aging response and grain growth with examples. annealing chemical composition fixtures heat treatment precipitation hardening solution heat treatment stress relieving superalloys surface degradation wrought nickel alloys NICKEL ALLOYS derive...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., however, it would be reasonable to assume that for nonmodified alloys, the eutectic nucleation temperature is greater than the growth temperature (that is, T N > T G ). This may be inferred from the appearance of eutectic grains in the liquid phase ahead of the solid/liquid interface. Conversely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Abstract Polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of repeating organic units joined by urethane linkages. Polyurethane polymers are formed through step-growth polymerization by making a monomer containing at least two isocyanate functional groups to react with another monomer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... distinguishable solid states is then called a phase, and one speaks of the α phase and the β phase. Fig. 1 The distribution of atoms in solid, liquid, and vapor phases of alloys. (a) Two solid solutions formed in a 50% Fe-50% Cu alloy. (b) Liquid phase formed by 50% Fe-50% Cu alloy. (c) Two liquid phases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... formed by the evaporation of H 3 BO 3 in a plasma of NH 3 ( Ref 102 ). Probably the most sophisticated vacuum deposition system/process is that used for molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), or vapor phase epitaxy (VPE) ( Ref 103 ). Molecular beam epitaxy is used to form epitaxial films of semiconductor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... lasers was accompanied by studies of the interaction of the radiation field with solids, primarily to determine the origin of optical damage ( Ref 6 ). These studies included an analysis of the vapor created by lasers focused to ablation energy densities. Film growth studies included the deposition of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., etc.). A common approach to limiting microsegregation is through nonequilibrium processing, such as rapid solidification of melt. Processes that have relatively high solidification rates and result in reduced microsegregation include spray forming, melt spinning, atomization, vapor phase deposition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... crystals that could be joined artificially without a phase transformation (e.g., epitaxial growth of one crystal on top of the other during chemical vapor deposition) or two grains of the same phase with different orientations in polycrystalline aggregates. An OR can even be defined for two coexisting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., the fundamental processes described in initial papers have remained. Therefore, any thorough discussion of AAS must begin with the basics. Inherent to all forms of analytical atomic spectroscopy is the necessity to produce atomic vapors from condensed phase samples (i.e., solids or solutions...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...: Synthesis of the material deposited (transition from a condensed state, solid or liquid, to the vapor phase, or, for deposition of compounds, reaction between the components of the compound, some of which may be introduced into the chamber as a gas or vapor) Vapor transport from the source to the...