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vacuum treatment

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., endothermic, dry hydrogen, dry argon, and vacuum. age hardening brazing carbides cast nickel-base alloys diffusion coating directionally solidified castings heat treatment polycrystalline cast superalloys solid-solution hardening solution heat treatment strengthening CAST NICKEL-BASE...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... its alloys. atmosphere furnaces heating elements pumps quenching stainless steel titanium alloys tool steel vacuum carburizing vacuum furnaces vacuum heat treatment vacuum nitriding VACUUM ATMOSPHERES have become the first choice of many heat treaters as a result of the advent of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... steel before and after vacuum treatment. Fig. 11 Reduction in hydrogen content of X38CrMoV51 die steel after vacuum induction degassing It is evident from Fig. 11 that final hydrogen contents below 1 ppm can be routinely achieved. The reduction in hydrogen during the degassing treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article discusses the fundamentals of thermal vaporization and condensation and provides information on the various vaporization sources and methods of vacuum deposition. It offers an overview of reactive evaporation and its deposition techniques. The article also explains the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... of γ″ instead of δ, and time-temperature-transformation diagrams such as that shown in Fig. 10 are used to establish appropriate heat treatment schedules. Fig. 10 Transformation diagram for vacuum-melted and hot-forged Inconel 718 bar. Source: Ref 12 The practical use of γ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article describes the heat treatment of wrought solid-solution and precipitation-hardening alloys with a focus on the major families of wrought nickel alloys. It also provides information on the heat treatment of some representative solid-solution alloys in the Monel (Ni-Cu...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., heat-resistant cobalt alloys, and cobalt-base corrosion-resistant alloys. The article also describes the heat treatments such as annealing and aging, for these alloys. cobalt-base alloys cobalt-base corrosion-resistant alloys heat treatment thermal resistance wear-resistant cobalt alloys...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... circulation furnace 150–200 Radiant atmosphere furnace (above 750 °C, or 1380 °F) 120–220 Vacuum furnace 120–200 Source: Ref 1 During solution heat treatment, several microstructural changes occur. These include fragmentation and spheroidization of eutectic silicon, dissolution of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article describes various quenchants, namely, water and inorganic salt solutions, polymers (polyvinyl alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyethyl oxazoline, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and sodium polyacrylates), quench oils, and molten salts, which are used for heat treatment of ferrous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article describes the fundamental concepts of heat treatment simulation, including the physical events and their interactions, the heat treatment simulation software, and the commonly used simulation strategies. It summarizes material data needed for heat treatment simulations and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... long times below approximately 735 °C (1350 °F). At elevated temperatures, bulk metallic titanium becomes chemically sensitive to its own surface oxide, thus during heat treatment or high-temperature service, the alloy can pick up oxygen from the environment. If the exposure is in a vacuum furnace...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses various molten-metal treatments, namely fluxing, degassing, and molten-metal filtration. It focuses on various molten-metal handling systems for transporting, holding, or delivering molten metal to the mold/die system. These include launders, tundishes, holding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... T5 treatment ( Ref 45 ). This is because a high-temperature solution treatment produces blisters in the casting. However, a number of recent process improvements reduced the amount of porosity and air trapped in high-pressure die castings. Most important are the application of a vacuum to the die...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... (outside the melting unit) or in a ladle. Thus, steel melt refinements are classified as treatments by either converter metallurgy or ladle metallurgy. Converter metallurgy includes melt refinement in AOD vessels and vacuum oxygen decarburization in a converter vessel. Ladle metallurgy refers to melt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... designs used for heating or heat treating of unalloyed uranium: molten salt baths, inert-atmosphere furnaces, and vacuum furnaces. Finally, it presents procedures that are examples of heat treatment used to meet certain specifications of ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... vacuum furnaces (where uniformity is more a function of loading). The monitoring thermocouple is of value in evaluating uniformity and the repeatability of uniformity. Although the need for precise control of temperature during the heat treatment process is well understood, it must be recognized that...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., furnace types, charging practices of metal melting methods, namely induction melting, cupola melting, arc melting, crucible melting, reaction melting, and vacuum melting, and the refractories and charging practice of reverberatory furnaces. Molten metal treatment of steels and aluminum also is discussed...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... zirconium castings casting casting defects centrifugal casting chemical properties hot isostatic pressing induction skull melting investment casting machining mechanical properties postweld heat treatment static casting vacuum arc skull melting vacuum induction melting foundry melting rammed...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and rotor steels have higher quality requirements and tighter composition control than plain carbon or ordinary low-alloy steels. The production of special-quality steels requires vacuum-based induction or electric remelting and refining capabilities. The article explores the types and characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... rise to abnormal grain growth during high-temperature annealing. By contrast, cast-and-extruded material was found to develop primarily a ⟨110⟩ texture with a weaker ⟨111⟩ component, but was not susceptible to abnormal grain growth during subsequent high-temperature heat treatment. Vacuum hot...