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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... in several types of machines such as positive displacement pumps including hydraulic pumps, turbo-pumps including centrifugal pumps, vacuum pumps, and compressors including the positive displacement type and turbo type. wear fluid machineries fluid power systems friction lubrication hydraulic...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract Vacuum high-pressure die casting uses a vacuum pump to evacuate the air and gases from the die casting die cavity and metal delivery system before and during the injection of molten metal. This article describes the conventional die casting, vacuum die casting, and high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...); this point is reached at 1311 °C (2390 °F) at a pressure of 130 MPa (10 –3 mm Hg). Fig. 16 Vapor pressure vs. temperature for carbon and various pure metals Fig. 17 Typical vacuum ion nitriding vessel Fig. 7 Typical vacuum furnace pumping system containing mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... melting (VIM) was first applied in 1928, when Heraeus Vakuumschmelze commissioned two 4-ton furnaces in Hanau, Germany. The breakthrough in vacuum metallurgy took place after high-power vacuum pump sets became available and was accompanied by a continuous rise in metal and steel cleanliness levels...
Book Chapter

By G. Keough
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... This batch-type skull melting furnace allows for cycle times of approximately 1 h for a full 50 kg (110 lb) pumping/melting/casting cycle. In principle, three consecutive pours can be obtained from one electrode. This furnace basically consists of a vacuum chamber, an arc voltage-controlled electrode drive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... enough energy to sublime from the solid surface. The sublimed atoms escape through the vacuum pumping system or condense on cooler regions of the furnace, resulting in evaporative loss. Evaporation results in a change in chemical composition of the part surface, which could ultimately affect the overall...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., by the size of the vacuum chamber employed. Consequently, the production rate (as well as unit cost) is affected by the need to pump down the chamber for each production load. Because the electron beam is deflected by magnetic fields, nonmagnetic or degaussed metals must be used for tooling and fixturing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Furnace Equipment Although conventional atmosphere furnaces can be adapted for vacuum heat treating by adding a vacuum-tight retort connected to a suitable pumping system, furnace equipment developed especially for vacuum heat treating is generally used. There are two distinctly different types...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... kind of temperature control is advised. Equipment For vacuum infusion, a small vacuum pump and an overflow vessel are sufficient. RTM requires injection equipment. Spray- up involves a spray gun, and hand lay-up can be done with a simple roller and brush. Low pressure/temperature (P/T) prepreg...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and the furnace. Vacuum Induction Melting (VIM) In vacuum induction melting (VIM), the induction furnace is enclosed in a steel chamber, as shown in Fig. 14 . The chamber is connected to vacuum pumps that reduce the pressure in the chamber to 10 −3 torr. The furnace may be charged with the door open...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... in a vacuum chamber is determined by how leak tight the chamber is and the type of vacuum pumps used to evacuate the chamber. Vacuum chambers equipped with a mechanical pump can achieve vacuum levels as low as 10 −3 torr. To achieve vacuum levels lower than 10 −3 torr, chambers need to be equipped with two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... processes). In EBW-HV and EBW-MV, inadequate cleaning of weld surfaces also adversely affects evacuation time and gun operational stability, as well as contributing to the rapid degradation of the oil used in the vacuum pumps. Generally, workpiece material and quality requirements define the need...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... are prepared, the vacuum assembly is taken near the sampling area. A cylinder is fitted to a crossover that has another cavity where the sampling cup is placed. The upper end of the cylinder is connected to the vacuum pump having an appropriate vacuum gage. The vacuum is turned off, and the cylinder and sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001375
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... to be coated are usually mounted in a fixture (which may be water-cooled) inside the vacuum chamber, with the base-metal surfaces facing the evaporation or sputtering source. The chamber is evacuated using a roughing pump is conjunction with an ultrahigh vacuum turbomolecular or cryogenic pump. After achieving...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... is to operate continuously, the feed material must be “locked in” to prevent disturbance of the furnace atmosphere. The furnace must also have a vacuum pump so that it can be evacuated before backfilling. If the furnace is operated under reduced pressure, an offgas pump with an on-line gas control valve...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... on the converter metallurgy, which includes melt refinement in argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) vessels and vacuum oxygen decarburization (VODC) in a converter vessel. It also discusses ladle metallurgy, which includes vacuum induction degassing, vacuum oxygen decarburization, and vacuum ladle degassing...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract This article describes typical foundry practices used to commercially produce zirconium castings. The foundry practices are divided into two sections, namely, melting and casting. The article discusses various melting processes, such as vacuum arc skull melting, induction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...-ammonia-based atmospheres, industrial gas nitrogen-base atmospheres, argon atmospheres, and hydrogen atmospheres. Atmospheres for backfilling, partial pressure operation, and quenching in vacuum are also discussed. Furnace atmospheres constitute four major groups of safety hazards in heat treating: fire...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and trajectory of the ions is controlled by continuously varying the accelerating voltage and the magnetic field. The interested reader is referred to Ref 2 for more details on magnetic-sector mass analyzers. Neutral molecules are removed by vacuum pumps, and molecules with negative charges are drawn...