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vacuum metallizing

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... discusses the selection of plastics for plating. This article also describes metallizing techniques, including plating (electrolytic or electroplating), vacuum metallizing and thermal spraying, and environmental considerations. The article discusses the quality assurance procedures for metallized plastic...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Vacuum high-pressure die casting uses a vacuum pump to evacuate the air and gases from the die casting die cavity and metal delivery system before and during the injection of molten metal. This article describes the conventional die casting, vacuum die casting, and high-pressure die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Vacuum heat treating consists of thermally treating metals and alloys in cylindrical steel chambers that have been pumped down to less than normal atmospheric pressure. This article provides a detailed account of the operations and designs of vacuum furnaces, discussing their pressure...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... refinement process nitrogen hydrogen degassing MELTING UNDER VACUUM in an induction-heated crucible is a tried and tested process in the production of liquid metal. It has its origins in the middle of the 19th century, but the actual technical breakthrough occurred in the second half of the 20th century...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... arc remelting vacuum induction melted THERE ARE TWO COMMONLY USED remelting processes for metal refinement: electroslag remelting (ESR) and vacuum arc remelting (VAR). In both processes, an electrode is melted as it advances into the melting region of the furnace. As the working face of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... was not routinely used until about 1929, when it was first used for optical coatings ( Ref 1 ). Strong, for example, metallized the 100 in. mirror for the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1935. The subject of vacuum deposition was thoroughly investigated by Glang in 1970 ( Ref 2 ), and most review articles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Heat treating furnaces require different control systems and integration for achieving optimum technical results and enabling safe operation. This article focuses on atmosphere furnaces, with some coverage on controls for vacuum furnaces. Heat treating operations require reliable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
....) gold, heated at 1200 to 1370 °C (2190 to 2500 °F) under vacuum for 5 min, and then plated with gold or other metals to the desired thickness. The TZM (0.5% Ti, 0.08% Zr, balance Mo) alloy has good strength properties at high temperature, but is subject to galling in threaded fasteners. Rhodium...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...- and iron-nickel-base alloys, are air melted by various methods applicable to stainless steels. However, for most nickel- or iron-nickel-base superalloys, vacuum induction melting (VIM) is required as the primary melting process. As noted in the preceding section, the structure of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...-purity sodium and potassium hydroxide are concentrated to the anhydrous melt in silver pans, and commercial grades of these products are also concentrated in silver-lined continuous vacuum evaporators operating at over 315 °C (600 °F). Silver-tubed condensers are used for condensing 70% HF from the hot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... ) and solid-solution strengthening. Carbon content generally ranges from 0.25 to 1.0%, with nitrogen occasionally substituting for carbon. MAR-M alloy 509 is an alloy designed for vacuum investment casting. Compared to the wrought alloys, cast cobalt-base superalloys are characterized by higher contents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... gas quenched in a controlled vacuum environment. Hickman's method ( Ref 13 , 14 , 15 ), which has some of the fastest quench rates on record, involves heating foils by passing an electric current through them in a furnace, then introducing helium at 0.1 atm into the . Typical quench rates from the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Painting offers the following advantages over other processes used for the protection or decoration of metal parts and assemblies: The equipment required for applying paint is usually less expensive to buy and install, is simpler to operate, and requires less control. Material and labor costs per...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... section “Ladle Furnace and Vacuum Arc Degassing in this article). Depending on metal, ladle size, and expected heating rate, electrical power of up to several megawatts may be applied. Heating can be done by graphite electrodes, plasma torches, or induction coils. However, graphite electrodes cannot be...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.../pressure riserless casting process for casting aluminum. metal casting furnaces pressure riserless casting casting aluminum low-pressure casting vacuum riserless LOW-PRESSURE METAL CASTING has been used since the 1950s to produce high-volume, high-integrity castings in alloys ranging from...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... controlled vacuum to the mold chamber, but it can also be accomplished by applying a controlled pressure to the melt surface. This differential pressure causes metal to flow up the sprue and into the mold cavities. After the mold is completely filled, the liquid metal is held in position with this...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., furnace types, charging practices of metal melting methods, namely induction melting, cupola melting, arc melting, crucible melting, reaction melting, and vacuum melting, and the refractories and charging practice of reverberatory furnaces. Molten metal treatment of steels and aluminum also is discussed...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... lost foam casting metallic molds no-bake process permanent mold casting plaster casting sand molds semisolid casting vacuum molding MOLDING METHODS and materials encompass a wide range of options. Some molding (casting) processes are centuries old, while others did not exist two...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... been updated and revised from J.P. Laughlin, Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys, Casting , Vol 15, Metals Handbook , ASM International, 1988, p 836–839. Vacuum arc skull melting furnaces use consumable electrodes melting into water-cooled copper crucibles. When sufficient metal has been melted, the...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., slowing solidification, due to the presence of no moisture in the mold sand. Metal fluidity has also been observed as being higher in vacuum-process molds than that of green sand. Vacuum molding is often used in the floor molding of relatively large patterns (flask sizes ≥750 × 750 mm, or 30 × 30 in...