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vacuum forming

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... vaporizes materials by thermal means (that is, evaporation or sublimation), but other vapor sources can be used. The advantage of vacuum evaporation is that films of a variety of materials can be deposited at high rates over large areas in a very pure form. Limitations of vacuum evaporation are that often...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... superalloys. Compared to air-melting processes such electric arc furnaces (EAF) with argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) converters, VIM of superalloys provides a considerable reduction in oxygen and nitrogen contents. Accordingly, with fewer oxides and nitrides formed, the microcleanliness of vacuum-melted...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract The vacuum arc remelting (VAR) process is widely used to improve the cleanliness and refine the structure of standard air melted or vacuum induction melted (VIM) ingots and also used in the triplex production of superalloys. This article illustrates the VAR process and the capabilities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... of the titanium/nickel eutectic that may form at 943 °C (1730 °F), causing both the titanium parts and the fixtures to melt. Hot-wall vacuum furnaces were the first type to be designed. They are now essentially obsolete because of the demands of the heat treating industry for higher temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... aluminide alloys, are also discussed. aluminide alloy bulk deformation bulk forming cold-hearth melting conventional hot forging extrusion gamma titanium aluminide alloy intermetallic alloy isothermal forging microstructure silicide intermetallic alloy thermomechanical processing vacuum...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... information on the various drive systems and the auxiliary equipment. It describes the selection of die materials and lubricants for sheet metal forming and provides information on the lubrication mechanisms and selection with a list of lubricant types for forming of specific sheet materials of ferrous or...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... parts such as Si 3 N 4 gas turbine engine components. Pressures as high as 10 MPa (1.5 ksi) have been used. A less common approach is vacuum casting, in which a vacuum is applied to the outside of a mold. This process can be used to increase casting rates with either the drain or solid casting...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... greater directional effects ( Fig. 4 ) than alloys that are not age hardenable. However, vacuum melting and solution annealing serve to reduce directional effects (anisotropy). Fig. 4 Effect of forming direction relative to rolling direction on the formability of alloy 41 sheet 0.5 to 4.75 mm (0.02...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... by vacuum hot pressing. The powder is obtained by chipping and then mechanically or pneumatically pulverizing a vacuum-cast ingot. The hot-pressed block can be warm rolled to the desired sheet thickness. COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS are readily formed into complicated shapes, even in foil...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... inclusion prevention. Both vacuum and inert gases are used to process alloys for more demanding applications such as metal bearings, superalloys, and metal alloy prosthetics. Further discussion is included under specific alloy systems and melt methods elsewhere in this Volume. The amount of carbon in iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... neglect of carbon concentration dependency of diffusion coefficient produced no problems, it seems to be important for simulation of vacuum carburizing processes ( Ref 83 ). Moreover, co-diffusing element concentration (nitrogen) affects diffusivity, solubility, and thermodynamic activity in simulation of...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., precise chemistry control, and improved shop logistics. Fig. 20 Direct-current plasma ladle refiner with argon flowing through the electrode to form and stabilize the plasma arc Vacuum degassing processes expose liquid steel to a low-pressure environment to decrease gaseous content. The major...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... thermoforming, namely, sheet transportation, heating, forming/cooling, and trimming, and different thermoforming techniques: basic female forming; basic male forming; matched-mold thermoforming; plug-assist thermoforming; pressure bubble plug-assist vacuum thermoforming; vacuum snapback thermoforming; air-slip...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... heating and then formed on an appropriate pattern to produce the hollow cavity for the final casting in the finished mold. The control factors of the V-process that may affect the quality of the castings are the molding sand, vibration frequency, vibrating time, degree of vacuum imposed, and pouring...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Autoclave molding is a process used to impart a controlled heat and pressure cycle cure to a layup. This article describes the materials used for preparing a layup, including peel ply, separator, bleeder, barrier, breather, dam, and vacuum bag. It describes the major elements and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article describes typical foundry practices used to commercially produce zirconium castings. The foundry practices are divided into two sections, namely, melting and casting. The article discusses various melting processes, such as vacuum arc skull melting, induction skull melting...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Wet lay-up using hand or spray techniques is one of the simplest methods of combining a fiber reinforcement with a solidifying resin to form a composite structure. This article describes several wet lay-up processes - including contact molding, spray molding, vacuum bag molding, and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., resin and fiber types, resin-fiber interface, type of composite processing (filament winding, tape wrapping, or molding), and type of composite cure (autoclave, hydroclave, vacuum bag molding, extrusion, or compression or injection molding). In addition, these observations on material properties in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in layers; otherwise, the heat may be liberated so quickly that the crucible cracks. Vacuum melting is used for nickel-base superalloys, titanium alloys, and refractory alloys, to protect them from oxygen, which, in the case of the nickel-base alloys, forms deleterious inclusions, and in the case...