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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... techniques. However, developments in the technology have shown that vacuum infusion can also be an alternative to prepreg compression molding and prepreg vacuum bagging. When choosing the most cost-efficient manufacturing technology for a certain part several criteria play a role. Important criteria...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Autoclave molding is a process used to impart a controlled heat and pressure cycle cure to a layup. This article describes the materials used for preparing a layup, including peel ply, separator, bleeder, barrier, breather, dam, and vacuum bag. It describes the major elements...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Wet lay-up using hand or spray techniques is one of the simplest methods of combining a fiber reinforcement with a solidifying resin to form a composite structure. This article describes several wet lay-up processes - including contact molding, spray molding, vacuum bag molding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., instructions, and materials for repair. It describes various paint-removal methods for composites. The article concludes with a discussion on various curing equipment, namely, portable repair systems, vacuum bags, and ovens and autoclaves. autoclaves composite repair ovens quality control repair...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... in the matched-mold RTM tool. Conventional vacuum bags pull preforms too tight around the corners of debulking mandrels, which, combined with the increased bag pressure, overcompacts the preform fibers in these areas. Reinforced cauls can be built by waxing up the required debulk thickness and building cauls...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., a subsystem to apply vacuum to parts covered by a vacuum bag, a subsystem to control operating parameters, and a subsystem to load the molds into the autoclave. Recent developments in sensors and computer technology have greatly increased the ability to monitor and control cure cycles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... include vacuum bag or autoclave molding. However, liquid molding offers two major advantages from a design perspective: Components can be made with two accurate, molded faces. Dimensional control is superior, which facilitates any subsequent assembly operations. Thick sections (or sandwich panels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... and processes are still used for many other applications. Modern lay-up methods and vacuum bagging techniques can be employed with long pot-life resins to achieve acceptable tool laminates. Many of the wet lay-up methods and techniques parallel those used to fabricate prepreg tooling, which is the primary focus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... Portable vacuum systems must be approved and have special filters if outlets are within the controlled area. During controlled-contamination-area shutdowns, uncured parts, prepreg, and film adhesive materials are placed in a sealed bag and stored in the freezer or in the controlled-contamination area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... in a one-off process where the core is bonded using vacuum bag techniques and epoxy adhesives. While most scantling authorities allow some scope for variations, this is typically an expensive process, requiring significant analysis and testing to validate the proposed change. Despite the constraints...
Book Chapter

By Greg Kress
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...), vacuum- assisted resin transfer molding, filament winding, compression molding, injection molding, centrifugal casting Processing equipment: Vacuum bagging, molds, ovens, autoclaves, presses, mandrels, bladders The application of composite materials in any industry has standard design criteria...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... lay-up and cure using a vacuum bag and/ or pressure is undeniably preferable to liquid molding processes. The downside of freezer storage and high prepreg cost if procuring small quantity continues to be overcome by the ability to make components simply and reliably. For applications with low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... as to avoid any damage to the structure, and then use the coldest point as the basis for ensuring complete cure of the adhesive. Pressure application on aircraft may also be achieved by a variety of means. These include vacuum bag, inflated bladder, or various forms of mechanical pressure. The use...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... in a vacuum bag and cured with additional autoclave pressure, major concerns are maintaining the integrity of the bag during the forming process and proper transfer of the applied pressure to the part. In any concave portion of the part, the vacuum bag can form a bridge if it is locally of inadequate size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... The consolidation of the repair is improved if the patch is compacted during curing by a vacuum bagging process, although this may not always be practical, particularly when performed as a field repair. Patches rarely recover more than 70% of the original strength, due to the uneven shear stress distribution along...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Low cost Lower strength components Large parts Relatively low-cost tooling Large commercial parts, where cost is more important than high strength or low weight Vacuum bag, oven cure Similar to wet lay-up, but improved consolidation leading to higher strength Large commercial parts, where cost...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... each impregnation and carbonization cycle to open voids for the next densification cycle Two-dimensional fabric tape-wound carbon/carbon Same as three dimensional Prepreg carbon phenolic fabric laid up, vacuum bagged, and cured at 165 °C (325 °F) and 1720 kPa (250 psi) for up to 18 hours. Heat-up...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., and syntactic core materials. They can be consolidated using autoclave, vacuum bag, press, pultrusion, RTM, Seemans composite resin injection molding process, or vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding methods. Curing of CE resins and prepregs is generally performed at elevated temperatures. Low-temperature...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the cure of the filament-wound composite is conducted at elevated temperatures without vacuum bagging or autoclave compaction. Mandrel removal, trimming, and other finishing operations complete the process. References 1. Freeman W.T. Jr. , and Stein B.A. , Filament Winding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... the variations inherent in hand processing, although it requires extensive programming. Errors in orientations caused by the surface contour are limited by the width of the tow or strip being used. Because most laminated structures are placed in a vacuum bag and additional autoclave pressure is applied...