1-20 of 34 Search Results for

vacuum arc skull melting

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Image
Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 1 Schematic of a vacuum arc skull melting and casting furnace. 1, fast retraction system; 2, power cables; 3, electrode feeder ram; 4, power supplies; 5, consumable electrode; 6, skull crucible (50 kg, or 110 lb); 7, tundish shield; 8, mold arrangement; 9, centrifugal casting system; 10 More
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article describes typical foundry practices used to commercially produce zirconium castings. The foundry practices are divided into two sections, namely, melting and casting. The article discusses various melting processes, such as vacuum arc skull melting, induction skull melting...
Book Chapter

By G. Keough
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Skull melting refers to the use of furnaces with water-cooled crucibles that freeze a solid “skull” of material on the crucible wall. This article describes the basic components, operating pressure, advantages, and applications of vacuum arc and induction skull melting furnaces...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... process to vacuum arc skull melting and casting or electron-beam skull melting and casting, and it can overcome some of the disadvantages of these processes. The disadvantages of vacuum arc skull melting in the melting and casting of titanium and superalloys are: Control of superheating...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... temperature and vacuum gauges in the system. Vacuum Arc Skull Melting Very reactive alloys, such as titanium alloys, cannot be melted in refractory crucibles, because they violently react with or dissolve the refractory when they are molten. Instead, these materials are melted in water or NaK-cooled...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and cold rolling, hot extrusion of tubing, and hot swaging and cold drawing of rod and wire. Zirconium castings for valves, pumps, and other parts are cast in both rammed and machined graphite molds or in shell molds made by the investment technique. The metal is melted by either vacuum arc skull melting...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... for electron beam and vacuum arc remelting skull melting and casting Cold hearth melting process for the feedstock refining of superalloys for vaccum induction melting and electron beam casting Fig. 2 Examples of electron beam melting and casting processes. (a) Button melting with controlled...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and cores, detailing the binders and other materials used, as well as the formulation and control of slurries. Methods for pattern removal, mold firing, melting, casting, postcasting treatment, and inspection are explained. After presenting design recommendations for investment castings, the article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... ). If the anode is allowed to melt, material evaporates from the molten (consumable) anode surface. This vaporization technique is essentially the same as the vacuum-arc-remelting (VAR) process ( Ref 75 , 76 ). Some studies have been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... such as resistance heating, induction heating, and tungsten arc melting ( Ref 12 , 13 ). However, these methods never developed into industrial processes. The development during the early 1950s of the cold crucible, consumable-electrode vacuum arc melting process, or skull melting, by the U.S. Bureau of Mines ( Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... with or without intermediate and final heat treatment, and (c) secondary processing ( Ref 39 , 40 ). Ingot Production and Ingot Structure Three principal methods have been used successfully to melt near-gamma titanium aluminide ingots; these are induction skull melting, vacuum arc melting, and plasma...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003166
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...; these are frequently vacuum arc melted. Some highly alloyed materials, such as U-6Nb, must also be worked in the γ temperature range. Virtually all uranium alloys are vacuum solution treated in the γ range (∼800 to 850 °C, or 1470 to 1560 °F) to dissolve the alloying elements and remove hydrogen. The resulting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... cast superalloy production, although use may be found for powder metallurgy (P/M) superalloy production and/or revert scrap reclamation in the future. Vacuum arc skull melting and casting technology may also be used for superalloy castings. A plasma melting/refining facility for the production...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Zirconium and hafnium are consolidated by electric arc melting in a vacuum or under an inert gas atmosphere using the consumable electrode, cold mold technique. Zirconium Zirconium sponge, recycled material from processing, and alloying elements are combined into an electrode for vacuum arc melting...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... melting ( Ref 12 , 13 ). However, these methods never developed into industrial processes. The development during the early 1950s of the cold crucible, consumable-electrode vacuum arc melting process, “skull melting,” by the U.S. Bureau of Mines ( Ref 13 , 14 ) made it possible to melt large quantities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... be noted that the strength of the brazed joint is not directly related to the method of filler-metal melting. For example, if constructional metals are produced by vacuum melting, then there is a definite relationship between the vacuum-melting practice and the final strength of the ingot, bar, or rolled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... cutting to any subsequent thermal, mechanical, or back weld A weld made at the back of a single- process that melts base metals by the heat chemical treatments. groove weld. of a carbon arc and removes the molten autogenous weld A fusion weld made without balling up The formation of globules of molten...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... on the arc melting of iron and EAF steelmaking. chemical analysis cupola furnaces deoxidation electric arc furnaces ferrous alloys oxidation steel furnace shell water-cooling system preheat and furnace scrap burners heat reduction THE MELTING OF STEEL is performed in both arc furnaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.9781627081740
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... vacuum arc remelting (skull melting) or a vacuum induction melting technique in which a magnetic field is arranged to partially levitate the melt and keep it from touching the sides of the metal crucible. Rammed Graphite Molding Large heavy-section titanium castings can be made in rammed graphite...