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vacuum arc remelting

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
...Abstract Abstract This article provides an overview of the studies on computational modeling of the vacuum arc remelting (VAR) and electroslag remelting (ESR) processes. These models involve the axisymmetric analysis of the electromagnetic, flow, heat-transfer, and phase-change phenomena...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract The vacuum arc remelting (VAR) process is widely used to improve the cleanliness and refine the structure of standard air melted or vacuum induction melted (VIM) ingots. It is also used in the triplex production of superalloys. This article illustrates the VAR process...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... (for example, for refractory metals), vacuum arc melting and remelting (for reactive metals and superalloys), and electroslag melting and vacuum induction melting (for superalloys, specialty steels, and nonferrous metals). Some advantages and limitations of the competing vacuum processes are given in Table 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... and 0.005S composition. Ranges utilized by some producers are narrower. (c) 9Ni-4Co steels and premium quality, vacuum arc remelted steels typically is specified to have 0.10 max P and 0.10 max S. Ranges utilized by some producers are narrower. Typical mechanical properties of heat-treated 4130...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... imperfections are produced by the use of selected raw materials as the melting charge and the employment of advanced melting techniques such as vacuum carbon deoxidation, vacuum degassing, electroslag remelting (ESR), vacuum arc remelting (VAR), and double vacuum melting (vacuum induction melting followed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the principle, coil design, types and operation of a vacuum induction furnace. It describes the operation parameters that should be considered during the functioning of the induction furnace. electroslag remelting induction coils vacuum arc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005953
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... ), the characteristics of the two steels are similar. Typical fracture toughness of D-6AC with either electric arc furnace/vacuum arc remelting (EAF/VAR) or electric arc furnace/argon-oxygen decarburization/vacuum arc remelting (EAF/AOD/VAR) steelmaking methods Table 8 Typical fracture toughness of D-6AC...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., or freedom from harmful nonmetallic inclusions, of the steel. Bearing steels can be produced by one of these techniques: Clean-steel air-melt practices Electroslag remelting Air melting followed by vacuum arc remelting Vacuum induction melting followed by vacuum arc remelting (VIM/VAR...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... for further remelting in vacuum arc remelting (VAR) furnaces. The material is usually fed directly into a water-cooled copper crucible and melted by plasma heat from one or several plasma torches ( Fig. 5 ). The water-cooled copper baseplate of the crucible is continuously withdrawn. The shape and depth...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005306
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... involves vacuum induction melting (VIM), which is followed by consumable electrode remelting methods of electroslag remelting (ESR) and/or vacuum arc remelting (VAR). Electroslag remelting is not widely used, but several producers of critical rotating components in the gas turbine industry have adopted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0005586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...; volume VAR vacuum arc remelted VHN Vickers microindenter hardness number VI viscosity index VIM-VAR vacuum induction melted-vacuum arc remelted VOC volatile organic compound vol volume vol% volume percent VPE vapor-phase epitaxy w...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... with the metal being melted. Electroslag remelting is similar to vacuum arc remelting (VAR), except that ESR is carried out at normal atmospheric pressure and has a greater melting rate than VAR. Fig. 1 Schematic of an ESR furnace with multiple electrodes for large ingot production When the tip...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
.... , “An Evaluation of Vacuum Arc Remelted Tubesheet Forging Properties for CRBRP Steam Generators,” GEFR-00245, General Electric Co., Sunnyvale, CA, Sept 1977 13. Wilson A.D. , Roper C.R. , Orie K.E. , and Flecher F.B. , Properties and Behavior of Modern A387-22 Cr-Mo Steels...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of macrosegregation in a vacuum arc remelted (VAR) ingot of Ti-6Al-4V. Convection in the melt pool is driven by both buoyancy and Lorentz forces. The latter are particularly important in titanium ingot processing. An “in-house” research code, MULTIA, was used to do the macrosegregation calculations, with the Lorentz...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
.../vacuum arc remelted ingots. Grade Ultimate tensile strength 0.2% offset yield strength Elongation in 25 mm (1 in.), % Reduction in area, % Charpy V-notch impact toughness (a) Plane-strain fracture toughness (a) MPa ksi MPa ksi J ft · lbf MPa m ksi in . 18Ni...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005948
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... vacuum induction melted/vacuum arc remelted ingots. Heat treatment: 815 °C (1500 °F), 1 h, air cooled + 480 °C (900 °F), 5 h, air cooled. (b) L-S orientation (that is, tensile load applied along longitudinal axis and crack propagation along the short transverse axis) Compositions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... TTT time-temperature transformation TW thermit welding; thermite welding UNS Unified Numbering System USW ultrasonic welding UTS ultimate tensile strength UW upset welding v velocity V volt VIM-VAR vacuum induction melted-vacuum arc remelted vol volume vol...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of nonferrous metals and alloys. Table 2 shows some examples for possible use in nonferrous metallurgy. Vacuum induction melting is often done as the primary melting operation followed by secondary melting (remelting) operations such as electroslag remelting (ESR) and/or vacuum arc remelting (VAR).Various...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Handbook Viswanathan S. , Apelian D. , Donahue R.J. , DasGupta B. , Gywn M. , Jorstad J.L. , Monroe R.W. , Sahoo M. , Prucha T.E. , and Twarog D. , Ed., ASM International , 2008 , p 116 – 123 , 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200 96. Vacuum Arc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... embrittlement or SCC is very complex. The test results depend on environmental conditions (potential, pH, oxygenation level, temperature, environment), material and melting procedure (air, vacuum, electroslag remelting, vacuum arc remelting, and so on); test specimen geometry (notched tensile or bend specimens...