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vacuum arc melting

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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 1 Schematic of a vacuum arc skull melting and casting furnace. 1, fast retraction system; 2, power cables; 3, electrode feeder ram; 4, power supplies; 5, consumable electrode; 6, skull crucible (50 kg, or 110 lb); 7, tundish shield; 8, mold arrangement; 9, centrifugal casting system; 10 More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 5 Longitudinal section of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) superalloy ingot melted under typical industrial conditions. Courtesy of Special Metals Corporation More
Image
Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 30 Treatment cycle of a 75 Mg (80 ton) vacuum arc degassing-heated melt. 1, tapping; 2, additions of C + Al + 0.5% CaO; 3, temperature check; 4, sampling and temperature check; 5, addition of 1.5% alloys + 0.5% CaO; 6, temperature check; 7, additions + 0.5% CaO; 8, degassing; 9, venting More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 5 Melt rate versus vacuum arc remelting current (50 cm, or 20 in., ingot; a omposite graph from several independent sources). Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 6 Vacuum arc remelting pool depth versus melt current. Source: Ref 1 More
Book Chapter

By G. Keough
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Skull melting refers to the use of furnaces with water-cooled crucibles that freeze a solid “skull” of material on the crucible wall. This article describes the basic components, operating pressure, advantages, and applications of vacuum arc and induction skull melting furnaces...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... (for example, for refractory metals), vacuum arc melting and remelting (for reactive metals and superalloys), and electroslag melting and vacuum induction melting (for superalloys, specialty steels, and nonferrous metals). Some advantages and limitations of the competing vacuum processes are given in Table 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of the gamma aluminides with particular reference to production scaleable techniques, including vacuum arc and cold-hearth melting, isothermal forging, conventional hot forging, and extrusion. The selection and design of manufacturing methods, in the context of processing-cost trade-offs for gamma titanium...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract The vacuum arc remelting (VAR) process is widely used to improve the cleanliness and refine the structure of standard air melted or vacuum induction melted (VIM) ingots. It is also used in the triplex production of superalloys. This article illustrates the VAR process...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... in vacuum arc remelting (VAR) furnaces. The material is usually fed directly into a water-cooled copper crucible and melted by plasma heat from one or several plasma torches ( Fig. 5 ). The water-cooled copper baseplate of the crucible is continuously withdrawn. The shape and depth of the liquid pool...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... degassing refractories vacuum ladle degassing vacuum oxygen decarburization melting steels steel surface metallurgy ladle metallurgy argon oxygen decarburization vessel converter vessel direct arc melting MELT PROCESSING of steels can be broadly classified as either primary steelmaking...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article describes typical foundry practices used to commercially produce zirconium castings. The foundry practices are divided into two sections, namely, melting and casting. The article discusses various melting processes, such as vacuum arc skull melting, induction skull melting...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., furnace types, charging practices of metal melting methods, namely induction melting, cupola melting, arc melting, crucible melting, reaction melting, and vacuum melting, and the refractories and charging practice of reverberatory furnaces. Molten metal treatment of steels and aluminum also is discussed...
Image
Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 29 Thermal energy balances for arc-heated and induction-heated processes. VAD/LF, vacuum arc degassing/ladle furnace; VID/VIM, vacuum induction degassing/vacuum induction melting More
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005348
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-centered cubic KIc plane-strain fracture toughness CLAS counter-gravity low-pressure air-melted FCAW ux cored arc welding Kt theoretical stress concentration factor FDM nite difference method k distribution coef cient sand casting FEM nite element method kg kilogram CLV counter-gravity low-pressure...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... deoxidation, vacuum degassing, electroslag remelting (ESR), vacuum arc remelting (VAR), and double vacuum melting (vacuum induction melting followed by vacuum arc remelting, or VIM/VAR). These techniques yield less variation in properties from heat to heat and lot to lot; greater ductility and toughness...
Image
Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 3 Modern vacuum arc remelting (VAR) furnace. (a) 30 ton VAR. (b) Operational components: 1, electrode feed drive; 2, furnace chamber; 3, melting power supply; 4, busbars/cables; 5, electrode ram; 6, water jacket with crucible; 7, vacuum suction port; 8, X - Y adjustment; 9, load cell More
Image
Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 2 Examples of electron beam melting and casting processes. (a) Button melting with controlled solidification for quantitative determination of low-density inclusions. (b) Consolidation of raw material, chips, and solid scrap to consumable electrodes for vacuum arc or electron beam More
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 16 Schematic of a vacuum arc degassing plant layout. 1, transformer; 2, bus bars; 3, flexible cables; 4, electrode arms; 5, temperature-measuring and sampling device; 6, alloying lock; 7, electrode housing; 8, electrode masts; 9, operating platform; 10, lifting device for platform; 11 More
Image
Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 27 Schematic of a vacuum arc degassing plant layout. 1, transformer; 2, bus bars; 3, flexible cables; 4, electrode arms; 5, temperature-measuring and sampling device; 6, alloying lock; 7, electrode housing; 8, electrode masts; 9, operating platform; 10, lifting device for platform; 11 More