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Book Chapter

By W.R. Kanne, Jr.
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract Upset welding (UW) is a resistance welding process utilizing both heat and deformation to form a weld. A wide variety of shapes and materials can be joined using upset welding in either a single-pulse or continuous mode. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of upset...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article discusses the operation of upset forging machines and selection of the machine size. It describes several types of upsetter heading tools and their materials. The article reviews the cold shearing and hot shearing methods for preparing blanks for hot upset forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract A cylindrical specimen compressed with friction at the die surfaces does not remain cylindrical in shape but becomes bulged or barreled. Tensile stresses associated with the bulging surface make the upset test a candidate for workability testing. This article discusses test-specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Abstract Flash welding, also called flash butt welding, is a resistance welding process in which a butt joint weld is produced by a flashing action and by the application of pressure. The flash welding process consists of preweld preparation, flashing, upsetting (forging), and postweld heat...
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 6 Hollow cylindrical forging produced in an upsetting forging machine, illustrating that draft angles are measured both from the direction of closure of gripper dies and from the direction of ram of the forging plug More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 8 Four different tooling arrangements for upsetting the end of cylindrical bars to form bolt heads. (a) Head formed between punch and die. (b) Head formed in punch. (c) Head formed in die. (d) Head formed in punch and die More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 6 Flywheel slowdown, ram displacement, and forming load in upsetting of copper samples in a 1600 ton mechanical press. Source: Ref 4 More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 2 Three degrees of upsetting severity More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 4 Forging pressure required for upsetting versus (a) forging temperature and (b) percentage of upset reduction. Source: Ref 2 More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 8 Effect of steel being forged on the life of gripper dies in upsetting. Dimensions given in inches More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 9 Forging pressure required for upsetting vs. forging temperature for austenitic stainless steels and A-286 iron-nickel superalloy. Source: Ref 5 More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 4 Forging pressures required for the upsetting of magnesium alloy billets between flat dies. (a) Alloy AZ80A; strain rate: 0.11 s −1 . (b) Alloy AZ61A; strain rate: 0.11 s −1 . (c) Alloy AZ31B; strain rate: 0.7 s −1 More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 6 Effect of forging temperature on forging pressure required for upsetting to a 10% reduction at hydraulic press speeds for a magnesium alloy and an aluminum alloy More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 17 Process sequence for upsetting a second head on a caster stem. Courtesy of J. Bupp, National Machinery Co. More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 33 Example of workability analysis. (a) Upsetting of a bar with diameter d to produce a head with diameter D . (b) Material fracture limit lines are superimposed on the strain paths by which the process achieve the final desired strain. Strain path (b) (low friction) prevents fracture More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 43 Deformation patterns in nonlubricated, nonisothermal hot upsetting. (a) Initial barreling. (b) Barreling and folding over. (c) Beginning of end-face expansion. Source: Ref 50 More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 17 Consequences of friction illustrated in the upsetting of a cylinder. (a) Direction of shear stresses. (b) Consequent rise in interface pressure. (c) Inhomogeneity of deformation. τ p average frictional shear stress; ρ, normal pressure; σ f , flow stress; ρ a , average die pressure More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 24 Upsetting (a) of bar diameter d to head diameter D . (b) Material fracture strain limits are superimposed on strain paths reaching the final required strain. Strain path b (low friction) prevents fracture for both materials. Material B avoids fracture for either strain path. More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 22 Example of workability analysis. (a) Upsetting of a bar with diameter d to head with diameter D (b) Material fracture limit lines are superimposed on the strain paths by which the process achieves the final required strain. Strain path b (low friction) prevents fracture for both More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 12 Strain contours obtained after upsetting a compression sample in a median plane (a) parallel to and (b) perpendicular to the compression axis. Note the micrograph frame positioned to ensure observation of microstructure resulting from imposition of 0.7 strain. More