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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., distributing nuclei of recrystallized grains, growing the recrystallized grains, and updating the dislocation density. The article concludes with information on the developments in CA simulations. cellular automaton model static recrystallization dynamic recrystallization microstructure dislocation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... each phase diagram. The crystal structure data shown with the diagrams have been updated in some instances with information from Pearson's Handbook of Crystallographic Data for Intermetallic Phases , Second Edition, and have been augmented in all instances with the prototype for each phase listed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... $26 billion USD (15%) was avoidable through the use of existing technology. In 1995, a panel of Battelle scientists updated the data on corrosion cost in the USA by evaluating two decades (1975 to 1995) of corrosion-related changes in scientific knowledge and industrial practices ( Ref 12...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006479
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... All of the organizations used industry subject-matter experts and a consensus process in the development of their codes and standards. ASTM International (formerly the American Society for Testing and Materials) publishes yearly updates to its 70 volumes. Many of the NDT...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... iteration in a time step will be required to recalculate discrete forms of the governing equations in light of the updated values from the inner iterations. While attention typically is turned first to the prediction of the transport of heat and species, since these effects directly control the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... flows through the mesh. In the ALE formulation, the grid moves independently from the material, yet in a way that spans the material at any time. The Lagrangian approach can be further classified in two categories: the total and the updated Lagrangian methods. In the total Lagrangian approach...
Book Chapter

By G. Keough
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... casting, with promising results for casting complex and thin-walled near-net shape parts. Fig. 4 Cross section of induction skull melting (ISM) crucible with two different configurations of alternating current (ac) and direct current (dc) coils used in trials. Source: Ref 3 Updated from: F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... discrete elements are chosen to represent workpiece geometry—plane strain, axisymmetric, or three-dimensional (blocks)—and the calculation updated as the die compresses the workpiece incrementally. Source: Ref 34 The UMB method and its incremental formulation (UBET) have been widely applied to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... pricing were not sure how most of the prices were originally derived but “the prices had been determined several years ago and then annually updated.” In this experience, errors in heat treat pricing could affect the success and profitability of the company. The objective here is to develop a simple...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... overload condition that is updated each time a new maximum load is reached or the current yield zone, R y , grows beyond the overload plastic zone size. Figure 5 shows the relationship between the overload plastic zone and the current plastic zone to help clarify the model approach. The Wheeler...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the test plan, the failure mode should be distinguishable. Depending on the analytical work requested, a cause might be identified and an approach to mitigate future failures can be presented. However, a test plan often is a dynamic document that must be updated as testing progresses, particularly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...-evaluated, and π i is updated. In the conventional Potts model, the simulation is incremented after each attempted orientation swap. In the n -fold way, each orientation swap is successful, so the time increment must be scaled by the average time between successful flips in the vanilla algorithm. This...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... + W ij c where D c and W c are the symmetric and skew-symmetric components. The deformation gradient can be updated incrementally using: (Eq 11) F ( t + Δ t ) c = ( I + L c Δ t ) : F ( t ) c In addition, the locus of points in the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... tests are verified, the following actions are taken to initialize the growth of the grain: The state index of cell ν, I ν S , is updated following the definitions given previously. Consequently, the state index of all cells defined in the neighborhood of cell ν is also updated. The...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... solved in the cast product and in the different mold components. A global updating of the different configurations is then performed at the end of the time increment. This simple approach gives access to a prediction of the local air gap size g , or alternatively of the local contact pressure p c...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... tests are verified, the following actions are taken to initialize the growth of the grain: The state index of cell ν, I ν S , is updated following the definitions given previously. Consequently, the state index of all cells defined in the neighborhood of cell ν is also updated. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... book memorandum G95-1 ( Ref 2 ), which is a modification of ISO 10993-1. This ISO document has recently been updated (2009) and establishes the need for toxicological risk assessment and chemical and materials characterization prior to initiating any biological testing. The characterization of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... rotation. The computational requirements for the constitutive equations (consistently updating the stress over an elastic-plastic deformation) are lessened substantially because the only mode of deformation is the plastic one. Such a simplification is useful for large strain deformations under monotonic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... for two-dimensional applications in 1986. Due to the large deformation in the metalforming application, the updated Lagrangian method always suffers from mesh distortion and consequently requires many remeshings to complete one simulation. Two-dimensional metalforming procedures became practical for...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... been updated and revised from J.P. Laughlin, Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys, Casting , Vol 15, Metals Handbook , ASM International, 1988, p 836–839. Vacuum arc skull melting furnaces use consumable electrodes melting into water-cooled copper crucibles. When sufficient metal has been melted, the...