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unit cell

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract This article defines crystallographic terms and concepts, including crystal structure, unit cell, structure symbols, lattice, space-group notation, and atom position. It schematically illustrates the atom positions, prototypes, structure symbols, space-group notations, and lattice...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... mechanisms used to characterize structures. It illustrates the unit cells and ion positions for some simple metal crystals, arranged alphabetically according to Pearson symbol. The space lattice and crystal system, space-group notation, and prototype for each crystal are also illustrated. corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... lattice parameters of the unit cells are given in nanometers. The compilation of the table is restricted to changes in crystal structure that occur as a result of a change in temperature or pressure. allotropes crystal structure lattice parameter metallic elements phase transformation THE...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Crystal structure is the arrangement of atoms or molecules in the solid state that involves consideration of defects, or abnormalities, in idealized atomic/molecular arrangements. The three-dimensional aggregation of unit cells in the crystal forms a space lattice or Bravais lattice...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... and creep resistance at elevated temperatures. Ni 3 Al has an L1 2 ordered and face-centered cubic crystal structure ( Ref 1 ) that can be maintained up to 1395 °C (2545 °F) ( Fig. 4 ). Its unit cell contains four atoms, with three nickel atoms occupying face-centered positions and with one...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... calculated from the (unit) slip plane normal vector n and the (unit) vector in the slip direction or Burgers vector b from m i j s = 1 2 ( n i b j + n j b i ) and is by definition symmetric and traceless. The overall strain rate in the grain is then given by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... potential orientation swaps, more central processing unit time is spent on simulating boundary migration. There are many ways of ensuring that only boundary sites are sampled for potential orientation swaps, each of which has an associated computational overhead and memory allocation implications. The...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract In the handling of molten aluminum, it is fairly common to use filters as a part of the melting unit and in the gating and/or riser system. This article describes the methods of in-furnace and in-mold filtration, with emphasis on the filtration of molten aluminum. It discusses the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... these products contain core holes or open cells, and the extent of open area helps to define the product. Structural tile are used for walls and floors in Europe. Hollow brick provide through-the-wall units and are larger than standard brick, thus reducing wall cost. Brick was the paving of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... composites. A discussion on natural materials, nanomaterials, and stem cells is also provided. The article concludes with information on examples of biomaterials applications, including endovascular devices, knee implants, and neurostimulation. biocompatibility biomaterials cardiac pacemakers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Common GC detectors are the thermal conductivity cell detector, flame ionization detector, electron capture detector, sulfur chemiluminescence detector, and nitrogen-phosphorus detector. gas chromatography detectors gas chromatography CHROMATOGRAPHY is about separating (often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of these methods. Some of the factors pertinent to electrochemical cells are also provided. In addition, the article provides information on various potentiometric membrane electrodes used to quantify numerous ionic and nonionic species. coulometry potentiometric membrane electrodes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... diffraction peaks. The positions contain all the information on the geometry of the crystalline lattice. The intensities are related to the types of atoms and their spatial arrangement in the unit cell of the lattice. The sharpness of the diffraction peaks is an indicator of the perfection of the single...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... The main application of single-crystal x-ray diffraction (XRD) is to characterize the crystal structure, including determining symmetry, unit cell parameters, atomic coordinates and thermal displacement parameters, bond lengths and angles between the atoms, and structural motive (or topology). During...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... ( Fig. 6a ) When the CuAu alloy is cooled and transforms to the ordered CuAu I structure, the gold atoms remain at the top and bottom faces and at the unit cell corners, while copper atoms are located at the side face sites, causing a slight change in the lattice parameter ( Fig. 6b ). It can be seen...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003799
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... the conversion of measurements made against various reference electrodes and at different temperatures. There are two types of temperature coefficients for electrochemical reactions. The isothermal temperature coefficient is based on the definition that the half-cell reaction: 0.5 H 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... whose lower speeds can allow roll coating of the organic films. Fig. 6 Schematic diagram of a typical electrotinning line, using vertical plating cells. Source: Ref 1 Packaging and containers include the main sector, food and beverage cans ( Fig. 1 ), as well as general-purpose containers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... peaks, and their occurrence and directions in space are according to Bragg’s law, which is detailed in the next paragraph. The peaks have different intensities, reflecting the electron distribution (how atoms are arranged) in the unit cell. Structure determination by XRD relies on the directional and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... a sum of the atomic scattering factors from all the atom positions in the unit cell: Fig. 19 Illustration of relationship between direct and diffracted beams at an ( hkl ) plane of a crystalline structure (Eq 6) F θ = ∑ j f j exp 2 π i hx j + ky j...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... graphite bounded by (0001) and ( 10 1 ¯ 0 ) type planes; the hexagonal arrangement of the atoms within the (0001) plane is shown relative to the bounding ( 10 1 ¯ 0 ) faces. (b) Hexagonal structure of graphite showing the unit cell (heavy lines). Source: Ref 6...