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undissolved carbides

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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 9 Contents of undissolved carbides in M2 depending on austenitizing temperature. a, annealed condition More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Abstract This article describes the effects of undissolved carbides formed by segregation of alloying elements on the hardness of the powder-metallurgical (PM) high-alloy tool steels (HATS). It explains the calculation of exact stoichiometric carbon content that depends on the required...
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 48 AISI W1 (1.05% C), 19 mm (0.75 in.) diam bars, brine quenched. (a) Hardened case microstructure. 64 HRC. Case contains as-quenched martensite and undissolved carbides. 4% picral. (b) 2% nital etch reveals martensite as dark rather than light. (c) Transition zone. 55 HRC. Martensite More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 7 Steel 5 in Table 1 (grade C), cast, heat treated at 1095 °C (2000 °F) for 2 h, and water quenched. Microstructure consists of austenite grains, with undissolved carbides at interdendritic areas and grain boundaries. The high carbon content of this steel also contributed to a large More
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Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 17 Scanning electron micrographs of induction-hardened SAE 1541 steel with a ferrite + spheroidized carbide prior microstructure showing (a) the presence of undissolved carbides in lath martensite just below the surface, and (b) the spheroidized core structure characteristic More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 50 AISI L6, heated to 840 °C (1550 °F), oil quenched, and tempered at 150 °C (300 °F). 61 HRC. Martensite and undissolved carbides are revealed. 2% nital. 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 51 AISI O2, heated to 850 °C (1560 °F), oil quenched, and tempered at 175 °C (350 °F). 61 HRC. Martensite and a small amount of undissolved carbide are revealed. 2% nital. 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 55 AISI S7, heated to 940 °C (1725 °F), air quenched, and tempered at 200 °C (400 °F). 58 HRC. Martensite and a small amount of undissolved carbides are observed. Vilella's reagent. 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 56 AISI S7, heated to 940 °C (1725 °F), air quenched, and tempered at 495 °C (925 °F). 52 HRC. Martensite and a small amount of undissolved carbide are observed. Vilella's reagent. 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 60 AISI H21, heated to 1200 °C (2200 °F), oil quenched, and tempered at 595 °C (1100 °F). 53.5 HRC. Martensite and undissolved carbide are observed. 2% nital/Vilella's reagent. 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 63 AISI M1, heated to 1175 °C (2150 °F), oil quenched, and triple tempered at 480 °C (900 °F). 62 HRC. Martensite plus undissolved carbide are revealed. 2% nital. 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 64 AISI M2, heated to 1120 °C (2050 °F), oil quenched, and double tempered at 480 °C (900 °F). 62 HRC. Martensite plus undissolved carbide are revealed. Vilella's reagent. 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 65 AISI M4, heated to 1220 °C (2225 °F), oil quenched, and double tempered at 480 °C (900 °F). 62 HRC. Martensite plus undissolved carbide are revealed. Vilella's reagent. 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 66 AISI M42, heated to 1175 °C (2150 °F), oil quenched, and triple tempered at 565 °C (1050 °F). 65 HRC. Martensite plus undissolved carbide are observed. Vilella's reagent. 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 57 AISI A6, heated to 840 °C (1550 °F), air quenched, and tempered at 150 °C (300 °F). 61.5 HRC. Martensite plus a small amount of undissolved carbide are observed. 2% nital. 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 49 AISI S2, heated to 845 °C (1550 °F), water quenched, and tempered at 150 °C (300 °F). 59.5 HRC. Structure consists of martensite and some very fine undissolved carbide. 2% nital. 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 62 AISI D3, heated to 980 °C (1800 °F), oil quenched, and tempered at 200 °C (400 °F). 60.5 HRC. Martensite plus substantial undissolved carbide are visible. 2% nital/Vilella's reagent. 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 59 AISI H13, heated to 1025 °C (1875 °F), air quenched, and double tempered at 595 °C (1100 °F). 42 HRC. All martensite plus a small amount of very fine undissolved carbide. 2% nital. 1000× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 61 AISI D2, heated to 1010 °C (1850 °F), air quenched, and tempered at 200 °C (400 °F). 59.5 HRC. Martensite plus substantial undissolved carbide; note the prior-austenite grain boundaries. 2% nital. 1000× More
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Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 18 Light optical micrograph for SAE 4140 steel with a ferrite + coarse pearlite prior microstructure showing the presence of undissolved carbides in linear arrays (black arrow) and retained ferrite (equiaxed white area) at a depth of 0.254 mm (10 mils). 2% nital etch. Source: Ref 17 More