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uncertainty reduction

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... Table 1 Decision points in computational materials design where a designer can manage uncertainty Source of uncertainty Comments Selection of size of region explored As the size of the considered region increases, the number of datapoints needed to provide adequate coverage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... introduced by analysis of variance. Sampling uncertainty is often minimized by field and laboratory processing, with procedures that can include mixing, reduction, coning, quartering, riffling, milling, and grinding. Another aspect that must be considered subsequent to sampling is sample preservation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... of the optimal design for each of the drawing stages. (e) Reduction in maximum effective strain in the cup during the optimization process. Source: Ref 6 Fig. 5 Hooke-Jeeves optimization exercise with a quadratic function y = ( x 1 − 5) 2 + ( x 1 − 6) 2 starting from point [9, 2] Fig. 6...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... or samples can be devised to evaluate both standard deviations. Further reduction in measurement uncertainty is unimportant once it is one third or less of the sampling uncertainty ( Ref 1 ). Therefore, if the sampling uncertainty is large and cannot be reduced, a rapid, approximate analytical method may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005885
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
...) for hypoeutectoid steels. The subscript c indicates the temperature at which all of the carbides are completely dissolved. It should be noted that the uncertainty associated with all of the Ac transformation temperatures can be significant, and this uncertainty generally increases with heating rate. On average...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002468
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... members of a given group of materials are more expensive. However, using a stronger but more expensive material could result in a reduction of the total cost of the finished component. This is because less material would be used, and consequently processing cost could also be less. The load-carrying...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract Particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) is one of several quantitative analyses based on characteristic x-rays. This article provides a detailed account on the principles of PIXE, discussing the data-reduction codes used to identify, integrate, and reduce x-ray peaks into elemental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... 1.64 × 10 −8 Paris equation, exponent 3.0 2.25 Fracture toughness, K Ic (ksi in. ) 100 150 HAZ, heat-affected zone Table 7 Estimated sources of uncertainty in weldment fatigue strength data Data and references (a) Ω P 2 Ω G 2 Ω...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Factors in Design Safety in Design Random Variables Density Functions Cumulative Distribution Functions Sample Versus Population Parameters Variability Versus Uncertainty Precision Versus Bias Independent Versus Dependent Variables Why Not Just Assume Normality and Forget...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., the mathematical methods to obtain a POD curve, and techniques to assess uncertainty in the POD curve as it is obtained from a limited data set. The concept of model-assisted POD (MAPOD) is introduced, with additional details and representative examples of MAPOD. process modeling non-destructive evaluation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004188
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... on the corrosion of materials exposed to 0.5% wt HCl in dimethyl formamide (DMF). The data show that a large reduction in corrosion rate occurs when the water content in HCl-acidified organic solvents exceeds 1 wt%. The amount of water required to inhibit corrosion depends on the alloy and on the level of acid...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001745
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... that is not to be published, individual standards can be set, but the more lax these standards, the less certain is the identity of the sample under examination. Adherence to the above standard is advisable for reasonable certainty. The acceptable range does not necessarily reflect the uncertainty or lack of precision...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... (MFL) is a technique based on the magnetization of the component being inspected using a strong magnet located inside the test probe. It is therefore applicable only to ferromagnetic materials. As the probe encounters a wall thickness reduction or a sharp discontinuity, the flux distribution varies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the mechanical properties of a material ( Ref 1 ). Uniform elongation, total elongation, and reduction in area at fracture are frequently used as indexes of ductility. The extent of deformation possible in a tension test, however, is limited by the formation of a necked region in the tension specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and the material corrosion resistance characteristics, it can then develop or be accompanied by pitting or exfoliation. The final effect of this degradation process is a reduction of the mechanical properties of the part, in particular of the fatigue life of the joint ( Fig. 3 , 4 ). Additionally, improper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006368
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... bond strength of the connection was increased. Ren et al. ( Ref 6 ) estimated the amount of wear in cutting tools by measuring and processing the acoustic emission signals. A type-2 fuzzy estimation technique was used, and analysis showed a connection between the uncertainties in the acoustic emission...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
..., engineering analysis is performed for nominal conditions. The design must account for various sources of uncertainty inherent in materials behavior, manufacturing processes, models, and so on to arrive at a robust control strategy to ensure minimal variability in the component characteristics. The error...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...-size, tests are conducted using test specimens machined from the fastener or stud. Fasteners and studs should have their shanks machined to the dimensions shown in Fig. 9 . The reduction of the shank diameter of heat-treated fasteners and studs with nominal diameters larger than 16 mm should...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006557
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... 48. Wang L. , Felicelli S.D. , and Craig J.E. , “ Thermal Modeling and Experimental Validation in the LENS Process ,” 18th Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium ( Austin, TX ), 2007 49. Lane B. , Whitenton E. , Madhavan V. , and Donmez A. , Uncertainty...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... numerical modeling reliability species conservation equation uncertainty reduction vaporization weld pool IN FUSION WELDING, parts are joined together by melting and subsequent solidification. Although this principle is simple, complex transport phenomena take place during fusion welding...