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ultrathin-section specimen

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article describes the various aspects relating to the selection and preparation of ultrathin-section specimens of fiber-reinforced polymeric composites for examination by transmitted light microscopy. It provides information on the contrast-enhancement methods used by transmitted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... grinding, and polishing. The preparation techniques of ultrathin sections are also summarized. The article explains the illumination methods used by reflected light microscopy to view a specimen. These consist of epi-bright-field illumination, epi-dark-field illumination, epi-polarized light, and epi...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... can be used very effectively. The preparation of thermoplastic-matrix composites for optical microscopic analysis requires the creation of ultrathin sections so that transmitted polarized light can be used. Throughout the literature, this has often been performed using a microtome or similar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of the thermosetting resin. As a result, the phase separation of the rubber may be incomplete, which can lead to ambient- and elevated-temperature property degradation. In the following figures, ultrathin sections were developed from the composite materials to use transmitted-light optical microscopy contrast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Further preparation of the reflected-light sample to an ultrathin-section sample revealed more information about the heat generation created by the lightning strike. The vaporized and degraded matrix in the first ply can easily be seen by using transmitted-light optical microscopy. Deeper under the damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... thermoplastic resin and standard-modulus carbon fibers. To gain more information about the fracture mechanism and morphology after impact, an ultrathin section (less than 1 μm and up to 5 μm) was developed from a section in the montage. Various areas of the impacted specimen are shown in Fig. 6 . Upon impact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... not be visible to the naked eye, cross sectioning a composite and viewing with transmitted light may reveal even slight oxidation. Figure 3 shows a micrograph of an ultrathin section that was developed to determine the effect of short-term UV exposure on a carbon-fiber-reinforced composite part. It can be seen...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... from small regions of the specimen. This article illustrates the effectiveness of the technique in solving materials problems. The first section of the article provides information on analytical electron microscope (AEM) and its basic operational characteristics as well as on electron optics, electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... should be sectioned perpendicular to their axis using a precision diamond saw with either a metal-bonded diamond wafering blade or an ultrathin aluminum oxide abrasive blade. Generally, an abrasive cutoff blade selected to cut the substrate effectively will be the best blade for the combination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... additional sample preparation after polishing. One option is the development of an ultrathin section from the material of interest, as described in the article, “Thin-Section Preparation and Transmitted-Light Microscopy,” but other methods, such as etching, staining, and dyeing, are less time-consuming...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... or the wavelength-dispersive spectrometer. In this section the features of these spectrometers will be compared and contrasted. This discussion will demonstrate that the two different types of spectrometers, rather than being mutually competitive, are in fact highly complementary. The ideal x-ray microanalytical...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... microscopy are covered in the Section “Metallography” and will not be repeated here. While light microscopy is an important metallurgical tool, it has a number of limitations: Spatial resolution: Conventional light microscopes cannot resolve features smaller than ∼1 μm. Depth of field: Light...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... them. The article further provides information on the processes involved in the analytical setup of parameters in GDMS, covering the steps involved in the analysis of GDMS data. It ends with a section on the application and interpretation of GDMS in the metals industry. glow discharge mass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... to bearing area. The diameter of the hole times the the surface of a plastic, with boundaries that 1270 mm (50 in.) wide. It may or may not be thickness of the material. The cross-section may be more or less sharply de ned, some- impregnated with resin and is usually fur- area of the bearing load member...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006574
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... to the vibration amplitude, this decrease in vibration amplitude causes a decreased energy input to the top sections of the build, leading to degradation in build quality ( Ref 31 ). For example, measurements have indicated that the weld power could decrease by as much as 25% after depositing 20 layers ( Ref 31...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... Abstract Investment casting, in which molten metal is poured into hot molds, allows for the production of aluminum parts with extremely thin sections, knife edges and sharp detail. This article describes the various steps in the investment casting process, including patternmaking...
Book

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.9781627081955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... cases, respectively. In each of the structural and non-structural applications, composites do offer unique performance characteristics and the ability to realize weight savings. The following sections describe the specific state-of-the-art applications of composite materials for spacecraft missiles...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627081788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6