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ultrasound testing

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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 10 Expected ultrasound test signals (expressed in effective flat bottom hole, or EFBH, units) from a statistically weighted range of flaw and component parameters as a function of the size (characterized by area) for (1) a perfect reflector, (2) a “strong” scattering inclusion (large More
Image
Published: 31 October 2011
Fig. 16 Nondestructive testing using magnitude of ultrasound interface echo to measure weld contact area as an indication of weld quality More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... examples of the methods performed on various types of flaws resulting from solid-state welding processes. eddy current nondestructive evaluation solid-state welding ultrasound testing X-ray radiography A NUMBER OF NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION (NDE) methods, such as visual, liquid penetrant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... applications are considered in detail in the article “Phased Array Ultrasound” in this Volume. The pulse-echo method involves the detection of echoes produced when an ultrasonic pulse is reflected from a discontinuity or an interface in a test piece. This method is used in flaw detection, flaw location...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., lubricant oil analysis, acoustic emission testing, temperature monitoring, motor current signature analysis, and ultrasound emission. The article describes the evolution of condition-based maintenance in CM. It also describes the basics of integrated vehicle health management, a capability that enables...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Nondestructive testing and materials characterization Materials characterization and research Frequency range 10–500 MHz 10–100 MHz 100 MHz–2 GHz Resolution Resolution limited to the wavelength of ultrasound within the sample material Resolution limited to the wavelength of ultrasound within...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... with horns for high power and for a range of specialized nondestructive testing (NDT) applications. Magnetostriction is used for lower frequencies; a common application now is guided wave generation ( Ref 6 ). In looking more widely at options for ultrasound generation that generally are considered...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 23 Effect of direct-beam path length on frequency modulation range needed to avoid standing waves in the continuous-beam transmission testing of a material in which ultrasound velocity is 6 km/s (4 miles/s) More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 14 50 MHz C-mode scanning acoustic microscopy reflection-mode micrograph of a carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic test sample. The ultrasound was focused near the top surface of the sample. Field of view: 19 × 14 mm More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 21 Scanning laser acoustic microscopy image at 30 MHz of an alumina test disk similar in size to that shown in Fig. 18 . This sample was quite transparent to the ultrasound, as evidenced by the bright, relatively uniform appearance of the acoustic image. Field of view: 14 × 10.5 mm More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 18 Low-frequency 10 MHz scanning laser acoustic microscopy image of a 25 mm (1 in.) diameter alumina test disk. The disk is very attenuating to ultrasound because of internal defects that cover approximately 75% of the area (dark zones). Field of view: 35 × 26 mm More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... of the biggest drawbacks with the radiography method over other NDE methods is the requirement for accessibility to both surfaces of the material to be tested. Ultrasound The ultrasonic method uses high-frequency sound waves to locate and measure flaws in welds. It can be used to inspect various materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... ultrasound is at the basis of material testing, similarly to conventional ultrasonics, laser-ultrasonics entails the same applications, which include thickness measurement, flaw detection, and materials characterization. Thickness measurement is based on the measurement of the time interval between...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... with two transducers in transmission, with the object under test between them. An example of a two-transducer NDT system is shown in schematic form in Fig. 1 ( Ref 1 ). Recent years have seen increasing adoption of phased arrays; these are considered in the article “Phased Array Ultrasound...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... or other coupling liquid used in the standard ultrasonic inspection system approach. One method to accomplish this is with air-coupled ultrasonic testing (UT). The technique can be used very effectively on composite materials, such as laminates, honeycombs, and foams. Air-coupled ultrasound inspection has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... to reverberate in the good layers of the composite. For these reasons, porosity over 1 to 2% usually cannot be quantified in PE mode. Fig. 2 Example ultrasonic waveform in a composite sample Pulse-echo ultrasound is very sensitive to angle of the transducer to the part under test. The rule of thumb...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... holes of the same diameter. The difference is a function of both transducer frequency and distance from search unit to the hole end. A typical design for a test block that contains an FBH, used with longitudinal waves, is shown in Fig. 1(a) . In using such a block, ultrasound is directed from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.9781627081900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... according to ultrasound frequency, transducer diameter, and wave mode (shear or compression). Lower frequencies, such as 1 to 2.5 MHz, are used on thick sections. An important aspect of ultrasonic testing is calibration. The time base of the A-scan must be calibrated for distance in millimeters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... testing, quasi-static mechanical tests, dynamic mechanical tests, and metallographic examination, are reviewed. The article reviews weld-quality monitoring using various process signals and provides a discussion on the on-line and off-line nondestructive evaluation methods of spot weld quality...