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two-dimensional braiding

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Published: 01 January 2001
Fig. 8 Process window of fiber volume fraction for two- dimensional braid More
Book Chapter

By Frank K. Ko
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract Braided structures are unique in their high level of conformability, torsional stability, and damage resistance. This article describes the classifications of braiding such as two-dimensional braiding and three-dimensional braiding. It presents the governing equations for computer...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Braiding is a textile process that is known for its simplicity and versatility. Braided structures are unique in their high level of conformability, torsional stability, and damage resistance. This article describes the braiding process and the mechanical properties of two-dimensional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... and carbonization cycle may be necessary to open voids for next impregnation Two-dimensional filament wound CVD infiltrated (also braided) CVD of pyrolytic carbon into filament wound fiber preform; more than one densification cycle may be required Carbon or graphite fiber filament wound shape with helical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... can be designed into the part. Therefore, drape limits the amount of compound curvature. This is separate from the concern of laying a planar material on a doubly curved mold or the reverse problem of representing in two dimensions a three-dimensional surface without distortions. Typically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... into the part. Therefore, drape limits the radius of curvature in any given direction. This is separate from the concern of laying a planar material on a doubly curved mold or the reverse problem of representing in two dimensions a three-dimensional surface without distortions. Typically, thermoplastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... reinforcing fiber ideally should be surrounded by matrix without any voids. Fully polymerized thermoplastics have very high molecular weights, meaning that their melt viscosities are at least two orders of magnitude higher than melt viscosities for thermosets, which makes impregnation significantly more...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... is preassembled with foam cores in three-dimensional closed-section areas, if desired; the finished preform is placed in a mold; and the mold is closed. A two-component resin system is then mixed in a static mixer and metered into the mold through a runner system. The air inside the closed mold cavity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... divided into two reactions: the oxidation of zinc and the reduction of hydrogen ions: (Eq 3) Oxidation ( anodic reaction ) Zn → Zn 2 + + 2 e − (Eq 4) Reduction ( cathodic reaction ) 2 H + + 2 e − → H 2 An oxidation or anodic reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... include vacuum bag or autoclave molding. However, liquid molding offers two major advantages from a design perspective: Components can be made with two accurate, molded faces. Dimensional control is superior, which facilitates any subsequent assembly operations. Thick sections (or sandwich panels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., thermal, coupled-fluid structure, linear, or nonlinear. Select type of FE: beam, plate, shell, plane strain/stress, axisymmetric or solid, and mesh (coarse or fine) discretization. Define constitutive models: full 3-D orthotropic/anisotropic, two-dimensional (2-D) orthotropic/anisotropic, equivalent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... is of particular importance. Unfortunately, these analytic models are not yet capable of using lamina (single ply) properties to predict full-scale structural behavior. It is therefore typically necessary to validate all stages of design, from elements to full- scale structure, with both lamina and laminate (two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of ways, depending on the performance requirements of the specific application. A unidirectional (0°) alignment of fibers results in the highest level of property translation efficiency, but at the expense of intralaminar and interlaminar strength. A two-dimensional, planar interlaced fiber architecture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
..., and the corners heat quicker than the bulk of the material. This effect is illustrated in Fig. 5(d) and 22 , where more heat is generated around the through hole and keyway. Figure 5(d) is a two-dimensional representation of how sharp corners influence heating. Figure 22 is a three-dimensional model of how...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002481
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... of several parts and/or elimination of one or more manufacturing steps. There is no universally accepted shape classification system. The groupings given in Fig. 1 are used in the tables that list process attributes. Products of uniform cross section (spatial complexity = 0) are two-dimensional, all...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-matrix, metal-matrix, and ceramic-matrix composites. composite material organic-matrix composites metal-matrix composites ceramic-matrix composites A COMPOSITE MATERIAL is a macroscopic combination of two or more distinct materials, having a recognizable interface between them. Composites...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...). Curatives The epoxide group can react chemically with other molecules to form a three- dimensional network. This chemical reaction changes the liquid resin into a load-bearing solid. Curing agent scan include amines, anhydrides, acids, and many others. Two commonly used amine curatives for prepreg...
Book

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.9781627081955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... that is used by heat treat practitioners to describe a variety of processes and properties related to microstructure, machinability, formability, and internal stresses. There are two basic types of annealing: Full annealing Process annealing The purpose of full annealing is much like...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... to establish equilibrium be- incinerated (charred or intensely heated). sure, usually by means of air, steam, water, or tween stress and strain in both the loading and vacuum, to a exible barrier material that unloading directions. aspect ratio. (1) In essentially two-dimensional transmits the pressure...