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two-dimensional X-ray topography

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... topography, two-dimensional X-ray radiography, and ultra-fast three-dimensional X-ray tomography. solidification microstructure solidification two-dimensional X-ray topography two-dimensional X-ray radiography in situ monitoring X-ray imaging synchrotron radiation ultra-fast three-dimensional X...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the advantages of x-ray topography and x-ray diffractometry ( Ref 48 – 50 ). In this technique, a two-dimensional detector (charged-coupled device, or CCD, camera) records the diffracted spot where each pixel of the camera records its own “local” rocking curve, so that several images (or maps) can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... the potential to detect boundaries between materials with sufficiently different x-ray absorption properties in three dimensions, making it a potential candidate for dimensional metrology applications. These have been summarized in Table 1 . X-ray computed tomography is particularly suited to inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract X-ray topography is a technique that comprises topography and x-ray diffraction. This article provides a description of the kinematical theory and the dynamical theory of diffraction. It provides useful information on the configurations of reflection and transmission topography...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... for examining effects due to crystal defects or unusual aspects of a crystal structure. Single Crystal Topography X-ray topography is a unique application of single crystal analysis. It is essentially x-ray diffraction radiography in which a large area of a single crystal produces a single diffracted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... difference between the two electron states ( Fig. 4 ). The x-ray energy is characteristic of the element from which it was emitted. The EDS x-ray detector measures the relative abundance of emitted x-rays versus their energy. The traditional EDS detector is a lithium-drifted silicon, solid-state device...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... micrometers. Nowadays, these beamlines are abundant in all synchrotron radiation facilities around the world. Fig. 13 Single-crystal diffractometer. (a) Euler and (b) kappa geometries Single-Crystal Topography X-ray topography is a unique application of single-crystal analysis. It essentially...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... are detected, with irregularities highlighting defects. A, B, and C scan methods, referring to different acquisition modes Phased array Radiographic Absorption of x-rays; differences in absorption relate to defects Two-dimensional radiography (film, digital, and computed radiography) X-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Because the electron beam is scanned synchronously with the CRT, a two-dimensional distribution image is obtained. However, due to the low count rates, x-ray dot maps are rather noisy, and digital recording is more appropriate. In a digital system, the number of x-ray counts is stored for each pixel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... within the geometry of the simulation domain. As an illustrative example, Kantzos et al. ( Ref 19 ) instantiated three-dimensional (3D) models of L-PBF Ti-6Al-4V with explicitly resolved surface topography based on x-ray micro-CT measurements with an approximate minimum feature resolution of 1.5 μm (5.9...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001482
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of the physics of the model, reflective topography accompanied with velocity measurement by x-ray radiography is more desirable. Velocity Measurement Heiple and Roper ( Ref 4 ) used a high-speed movie to track the flow of Al 2 O 3 particles on the weld pool surface to measure surface velocity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...-thickness changes, etc. EPMA Electron probe microanalysis Electron Characteristic x-ray Energy-dispersive x-ray, wavelength-dispersive x-ray quantitative analysis ≈0.5 µm; depth direction 0.3 to several micrometers Analysis of slip products ESR Electron spin resonance Magnetic field...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... scar formed on silicon surface after sliding by a SiO 2 microsphere. Inset shows the AFM image of the wear scar. (b) Representative lattice resolved image in worn area marked with a box (dotted line) in (a). The electron dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectrum in inset reveals no oxygen is detected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
...-dimensional array of heights (e.g., [ x , z ] datapoints) for so-called profile data or a 2D array of heights (e.g., [ x , y , z ] datapoints) for so-called areal data, with uniform spacing in the x - or x - and y -directions. Often, areal measurements are referred to as two-and-a-half dimensional (2.5D...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., of the K α 1 and K α 2 lines is known for all x-ray tube targets, two functions (such as Pearson VII, Gaussian, modified Lorentzian, etc.) with the appropriate angular separation and relative intensity can be used to fit the doublet. In special material conditions or in the case of high-resolution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of defects becomes so high the material no longer exhibits the long-range structural order required to produce discrete features in x-ray, electron, or neutron diffraction. Organic semiconductors essentially lie between the amorphous and polycrystalline regimes, and are discussed in a separate section...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., and the images appear three dimensional. In addition, a broad range of magnifications (10 to 30,000×) facilitates the correlation of macro- and microscopic images. The scanning electron microscope also has analytical capabilities. Among the data signals released during examination are x-rays...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., electron probe x-ray microanalysis; FTIR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; IA, image analysis; IC, ion chromatography; ICP-AES, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; IR, infrared spectroscopy; LEISS, low-energy ion-scattering spectroscopy; NAA, neutron activation analysis; OES...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), the SEM can be used to obtain a wide range of information about surface topography, composition, crystallography, and electronic properties ( Table 2 ). For example, the SEM can be used to assess the grain size, packing density, and porosity of a coating if a fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., sample composition, and the specific signal being detected. Signals are most commonly secondary electrons, backscattered electrons, and x-rays. Other possible signals that can be generated and detected in the SEM include visible light (cathodoluminescence), beam induced current, and Auger electrons...