1-20 of 80 Search Results for

two-dimensional X-ray topography

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... topography, two-dimensional X-ray radiography, and ultra-fast three-dimensional X-ray tomography. solidification microstructure solidification two-dimensional X-ray topography two-dimensional X-ray radiography in situ monitoring X-ray imaging synchrotron radiation ultra-fast three-dimensional X...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... corresponding area-filling diffracted beam is projected onto a high-resolution x-ray film or detector ( Fig. 1a ). The two-dimensional diffraction spot thus obtained constitutes an x-ray topograph ( Fig. 1b ), and it precisely displays the variation of the diffracted intensity as a function of position...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... shown in Fig. 2(b) produces much the same result. The primary beam has some divergence, and the deviations from a parallel lattice cause nonuniformity in the reflected intensity. Fig. 2 Two methods for obtaining reflection topographs. (a) Polychromatic x-rays from a point source. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-Interscience , 1974 8. Ruud C.O. , Residual Stress Measurements , Mechanical Testing and Evaluation , Vol 8 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2000 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003329 9. He B.B. , Two-Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction , 2nd ed. , John Wiley & Sons, Inc ., 2009...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... ) oriented at a precise angle to the sample surface to be measured with the accuracy needed to determine the strain in the surface. Figure 1 shows the diffraction of a monochromatic beam of x-rays at a high diffraction angle, 2θ, from the surface of a stressed sample for two orientations of the sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... families have two or more characteristic x-ray energies for elements with atomic numbers greater than 10. With EDS spectral resolution, the presence of two peaks becomes noticeable for phosphorous (K-L 2,3 = 2.013 keV and K-M 2,3 = 2.139 keV) as an asymmetry on the high-energy side of the major peak, and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... wavelength-dispersion XRFS (WXRFS) ( Fig. 1 ). Both EDS and WXRFS are two of the few techniques where analytical measurements are made directly on a solid matrix. Fig. 1 Typical configuration for wavelength-dispersion x-ray fluorescence spectrometry The EDS technique is normally used in tandem...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... methods are preferred for determining lattice information. Film methods are indispensable for examining effects due to crystal defects or unusual aspects of a crystal structure. X-ray topography is a unique application of single crystal analysis. It is essentially x-ray diffraction radiography in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... x-ray is emitted to balance the energy difference between the two electron states ( Fig. 4 ). The x-ray energy is characteristic of the element from which it was emitted. The EDS x-ray detector measures the relative abundance of emitted x-rays versus their energy. The traditional EDS detector is a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... most directions results in cancellation and absence of detectable beams; however, in a few selected directions, reinforcement of all of the scattered rays occurs, and a strong beam results. The periodicity may be in one, two, or three dimensions. Figure 2 shows a wave incident on a one-dimensional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... ), who in 1951 used x-ray diffraction in addition to the light microscope in his work on cleavage in ferrite. In a written discussion following Klier's paper, Zapffe wrote, “Dr. Klier's photographs are splendid from both a photographic and a technical standpoint. He has in addition brought the important...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... cannot be recognized without measuring standards, their use is strongly discouraged ( Ref 1 ). The two-dimensional distribution of chemical elements can be visualized by recording the intensity of characteristic x-ray lines as a function of the beam position, which is called an element distribution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... μm (40 μin.) Lattice parameter selected area and defect density In a typical SEM, an electron beam from a tip or filament is accelerated by the anode (typically, by 5 to 30 kV) and focused by two magnetic lenses to a fine spot on the sample. At the same time, the beam is scanned in the x...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... associated with the carboxylate carbons (ester O=C-O) that are bound to two oxygens. A small satellite peak is also observed at about 291.5 eV. This peak is indicative of the aromaticity within the PET molecule. Fig. 5 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy high-resolution spectrum of polyethylene...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surfaces. These techniques provide data about the physical topography, physical properties, chemical composition, and chemical structure of the surfaces under study. Most of these techniques are based on bombarding the surface with species such as photons, x-rays, ions, neutrons, or electrons and analyzing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-ultrasonics, radiography, X-ray computed tomography, thermography, low-frequency vibration methods, acoustic emission, eddy current testing, optical holography, and shearography. The article presents some examples are for fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites. Many of the techniques have general...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... beam/specimen interactions and the generation of a signal, signal detectors, electron diffraction, imaging, x-ray microanalysis, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and sample preparation. The second section consists of 12 examples, each illustrating a specific type of materials problem that can be...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The article discusses the analysis and interpretation of base material composition and microstructures. Preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis are also discussed. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...) ESCA, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis; AES, Auger electron spectroscopy; SIMS, secondary ion mass spectroscopy; EDX, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy The basic methods for surface topography measurements are stylus profilometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001482
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... suggested because the pool is expected to resolidify quickly, is not an accurate assumption for model validation ( Ref 37 ). Therefore, for more accurate validation of the physics of the model, reflective topography accompanied with velocity measurement by x-ray radiography is more desirable. Heiple and...