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two-dimensional X-ray radiography

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... topography, two-dimensional X-ray radiography, and ultra-fast three-dimensional X-ray tomography. solidification microstructure solidification two-dimensional X-ray topography two-dimensional X-ray radiography in situ monitoring X-ray imaging synchrotron radiation ultra-fast three-dimensional X...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... After penetrating the testpiece, the x-rays or γ-rays pass through a medium on the imaging surface. This medium may be a recording medium (such as film) or a medium that responds to the intensity of the radiation (such as fluorescent screen or a scintillation crystal in a discrete detector). These two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... associated with radiography. There are two main aspects of safety: monitoring radiation dosage and protecting personnel. The article summarizes the major factors involved in both and discusses the operating characteristics of X-ray tubes. It describes the various methods of controlling scattered radiation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... exposed to x-radiation between lead screens. Fig. 1 Characteristic curves for x-ray film that determine type of film and film gradient, speed, and density. (a) Typical curves for three industrial x-ray films exposed to x-radiation between lead screens. (b) Evaluation of gradients at two points on...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... shown in Fig. 2(b) produces much the same result. The primary beam has some divergence, and the deviations from a parallel lattice cause nonuniformity in the reflected intensity. Fig. 2 Two methods for obtaining reflection topographs. (a) Polychromatic x-rays from a point source. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... referred to as industrial CT (iCT). X-ray computed tomography collects and reconstructs the data of x-ray transmission through a two-dimensional (2-D) slice of an object to form a cross-sectional image without interference from overlying and underlying areas of the object. The CT image represents the point...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... showing void and porosity in an adhesive bond line. Two 13 mm ( 1 2 in.) thick aluminum adherends bonded with EA 9628 adhesive are shown; AF-55 adhesive bond would have yielded similar results with x-ray radiography. One of the most important types of voids in honeycomb assemblies is the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-ultrasonics, radiography, X-ray computed tomography, thermography, low-frequency vibration methods, acoustic emission, eddy current testing, optical holography, and shearography. The article presents some examples are for fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites. Many of the techniques have general...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... typically 2% of the thickness of the component. Crack length also can be measured with a sensitivity level that depends on component geometry, crack morphology, and accessibility to the component ( Ref 36 ). Another method similar to gamma radiography is x-ray radiography, which is primarily used for...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... wavelength-dispersion XRFS (WXRFS) ( Fig. 1 ). Both EDS and WXRFS are two of the few techniques where analytical measurements are made directly on a solid matrix. Fig. 1 Typical configuration for wavelength-dispersion x-ray fluorescence spectrometry The EDS technique is normally used in tandem...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... methods are preferred for determining lattice information. Film methods are indispensable for examining effects due to crystal defects or unusual aspects of a crystal structure. X-ray topography is a unique application of single crystal analysis. It is essentially x-ray diffraction radiography in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... most directions results in cancellation and absence of detectable beams; however, in a few selected directions, reinforcement of all of the scattered rays occurs, and a strong beam results. The periodicity may be in one, two, or three dimensions. Figure 2 shows a wave incident on a one-dimensional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... stacked together to form a two-dimensional, cross-sectional image of the component, termed a B-scan. In contrast to a monolithic transducer, an array device comprises multiple independent transducer elements in a single package. There are three major advantages of using arrays over monolithic transducers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Radiography is one of the most widely used volumetric NDE methods. This method is based on differential absorption of penetrating radiation by the material. X-rays or gamma rays are the two types of waves used for this process. The radiography method works well for detecting and sizing volumetric flaws such...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Aircraft, Airports, Aerospace Hardware and Materials , SPIE Vol 2455 , Cordell T. and Rempt R. , Ed., 1995 , p 125 – 132 55. Anderson E. , Hartney M. , and Weisfield R. , Amorphous Silicon Imaging System for Improved X-Ray Image Capture in Nondestructive Evaluation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Radiography is one of the most widely used volumetric NDE methods. This method is based on differential absorption of penetrating radiation by the material. X-rays or gamma rays are the two types of waves used for this process. The radiography method works well for detecting and sizing volumetric flaws such...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... techniques include X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, Barkhausen noise analysis, and ultrasonic propagation analysis. The article concludes with an overview of weldability testing. bend strength ductility fracture toughness hardness hole drilling chip machining groove machining block...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... magnetic material Not suitable for nonmagnetic material Online monitoring; can sense stress without cracking Magnetic metals, steel, nickel, iron, chrome Radiography, computed tomography, digital x-ray, neutron radiographic testing, x-ray diffraction Penetrating rays of x-ray, gamma rays, or...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-volume detection environments to reduce dependency on a human operator to make decisions. Fig. 1 (a) X-ray inspection equipment. (b) Digital image of two aluminum castings showing no defects An ultrasonic transducer emits ultrasonic waves that pass through a certain section of a component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... analysis equipment, as shown in Fig. 14 ( Ref 14 ). The ability to rotate the part increases the likelihood of orienting a defect relative to the x-rays such that it will be detected. The x-ray source and the detector array can be raised or lowered to examine different planes through the part. A two...