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two-dimensional X-ray radiography

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... topography, two-dimensional X-ray radiography, and ultra-fast three-dimensional X-ray tomography. solidification microstructure solidification two-dimensional X-ray topography two-dimensional X-ray radiography in situ monitoring X-ray imaging synchrotron radiation ultra-fast three-dimensional X...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of radiation in radiographic inspection, including X-rays and gamma rays. It deals with the characteristics that differentiate neutron radiography from X-ray or gamma-ray radiography. The geometric principles of shadow formation, image conversion, variation of attenuation with test-piece thickness, and many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... are detected, with irregularities highlighting defects. A, B, and C scan methods, referring to different acquisition modes Phased array Radiographic Absorption of x-rays; differences in absorption relate to defects Two-dimensional radiography (film, digital, and computed radiography) X-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stress applied to magnetic material Online monitoring of magnetic material Not suitable for nonmagnetic material Online monitoring; can sense stress without cracking Magnetic metals, steel, nickel, iron, chrome Radiography, computed tomography, digital x-ray, neutron radiographic testing, x-ray...
Image
Published: 01 November 2010
Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. (b) Equiaxed grains growing in the melt during cooling of an Al-4wt%Cu alloy. Observed by synchrotron x-ray radiography at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Institut Matériaux Microélectronique Nanosciences de Provence, Univ. Paul Cézanne). Equiaxed crystals have More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... associated with radiography. There are two main aspects of safety: monitoring radiation dosage and protecting personnel. The article summarizes the major factors involved in both and discusses the operating characteristics of X-ray tubes. It describes the various methods of controlling scattered radiation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... referred to as industrial CT (iCT). X-ray computed tomography collects and reconstructs the data of x-ray transmission through a two-dimensional (2-D) slice of an object to form a cross-sectional image without interference from overlying and underlying areas of the object. The CT image represents the point...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of detail; thus, high gradient is important for good radiography. In Fig. 1(b) tangents to a characteristic curve for a typical x-ray film have been drawn at two points, and the two corresponding gradients ( a / b and c / d ) have been evaluated. Note that the gradient varies from 0.8 in the shallow...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and inclusions having measurable thickness in all directions can be also detected as long as they are not too small in relation to section thickness. Fluoroscopic Inspection and Automated Defect Recognition This system has replaced conventional radiography (film x-ray) and consists of an x-ray generator...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of a part that either reduces or increases x-ray attenuation will be resolvable by x-ray radiography. Some types of flaws and their x-ray images are shown in Fig. 11 ( Ref 11 ). Fig. 11 Schematic of flaws and their x-ray images. Defect types that can be detected by x-ray radiography are those...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of penetrating radiation by the material. X-rays or gamma rays are the two types of waves used for this process. The radiography method works well for detecting and sizing volumetric flaws such as pores, voids, and inclusions. With the radiographic method, it is possible to examine a wide variety of materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... absorption of penetrating radiation by the material. X-rays or gamma rays are the two types of waves used for this process. The radiography method works well for detecting and sizing volumetric flaws such as pores, voids, and inclusions. With the radiographic method, it is possible to examine a wide variety...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and porosity in an adhesive bond line. Two 13 mm ( 1 2 in.) thick aluminum adherends bonded with EA 9628 adhesive are shown; AF-55 adhesive bond would have yielded similar results with x-ray radiography. One of the most important types of voids in honeycomb assemblies is the leakage-type void...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... software. While conventional (two-dimensional visible light) imaging is most commonly used, alternatives include imaging various infrared bands, line scan imaging, 3-D imaging of surfaces, and x-ray imaging. The 3-D scanners use lasers or structured light to capture 3-D information of a part. The scanner...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... disciplines Source Energy range, keV Spot size, mm 2 Ref Advanced Photon Source 32-ID-B, C Phase contrast imaging Radiography Transmission x-ray microscopy Tomography Materials science Life science Geoscience Two undulators (a) 7–40 1 × 2 (unfocused) 5 , 33 35-ID-B, C, D, E Time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., radiography, X-ray computed tomography, thermography, low-frequency vibration methods, acoustic emission, eddy current testing, optical holography, and shearography. The article presents some examples are for fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites. Many of the techniques have general applicability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... Computed Tomography X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is introduced in the article “ X-RayRadiography and Computed Tomography in Additive Manufacturing ” in this Volume, which reviews the potential application of XCT for NDT of additively manufactured components. One key aspect of XCT is that it has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... ( x , t ) = β λ I 0 ρ C p e − β x ∫ 0 t f ( t ′ , τ ) d t ′ where β λ is the wavelength-dependent optical absorption coefficient (m −1 ), I 0 is the absorbed energy density of the laser (J/m 2 ), ρ is the material density, C p...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... structures. The most successful nondestructive inspection methods for composite materials include through-transmission ultrasonics (TTU), pulse- echo ultrasonics, and dye-penetrant enhanced x- radiography. In the first two methods, internal damage is detected by placing an ultrasonic transducer on either...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... be obtained through either energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS) or wavelength-dispersion XRFS (WXRFS) ( Fig. 1 ). Both EDS and WXRFS are two of the few techniques where analytical measurements are made directly on a solid matrix. Fig. 1 Typical configuration for wavelength-dispersion x-ray fluorescence...