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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... modes of adhesive wear including scoring, scuffing, seizure, and galling, and describes the processes involved in classic laboratory-type and standardized tests for the evaluation of adhesive wear. It includes information on standardized galling tests, twist compression, slider-on-flat-surface, load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... torsion to deformation levels equivalent to a true axial strain of 5 or more in tension, or a reduction of 90 to 95% in compression. Another attractive feature of the torsion test is that a constant true strain rate can be imposed on any given annular region of the specimen by simply twisting one end...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and medium industries. Despite this wide use, conventional drilling remains a rough process that generally needs to be finished by boring or reaming. The tool materials used for drills are high-speed steels, carbides, CBN, and diamonds. High-speed steel in the form of twist drills comes in all sizes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Symbol or relation Reduced section dimensions Length ( L ) Outer radius ( R ) Radial coordinate r Twist (θ), in radians θ (in radians)= twist in degrees × π 180 Twist rate (in radians per second) θ ˙ Shear strain (γ) γ = r θ L Shear...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... composed of any number of wires twisted together in the same direction without regard to geometric arrangement of the individual strands. ASTM B 174 provides for five classes (I, J, K, L, and M); these conductors are commonly used in flexible cords, hookup wires, and special flexible welding conductors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Chalmers ( Ref 14 ). The earlier consideration concerned the tilt of grain boundaries. When two crystals are twisted relative to each other, the favored twist angle is where the dense atomic rows in one crystal are parallel to valleys between the atomic rows in the other crystal ( Ref 14 , 24 ), so that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.9781627081955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... increase with increasing strain rate, as shown in low-carbon steel in hot-twist testing, where the number of twists to failure increases with increasing twisting rate ( Fig. 4 ). It is believed that the improvement in forgeability at higher strain rates is due to the increased temperature in the material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000624
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... intersection of a twin boundary with the cleavage plane. See also Fig. 1205 . SEM, 1200× Fig. 1205 Surface of a bending fracture in a specimen of the same alloy and the same history as that in Fig. 1203 , showing assorted river patterns. Note twist boundary at center, which has generated several...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... to be machined due to twisting of the shaft. Mechanical properties at surface of shaft: yield strength, 348 MPa (50.5 ksi); tensile strength, 556 MPa (80.6 ksi); elongation, 31%. Core properties: yield, 300 MPa (43.5 ksi); tensile, 620 MPa (89.9 ksi); elongation, 25%. Fig. 249 and 250 : One half...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... ductility and resistivity of the copper matrix. Preceding this step is a twisting operation, which twists the wire upon itself. This twists the filaments inside the composite, ensuring that the filaments act individually under electromagnetic fields. Superconductors requiring more than 5000 or 6000...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... should exhibit little twisting or distortion. A minor amount of distortion may be expected from residual thermal stresses if the laminate experienced some temperature differences throughout its length and thickness during its cure. However, if a part is noticeably distorted and cannot easily be returned...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... nucleation ( Fig. 22 ), step of a defect (twisted) boundary ( Fig. 22 ), and screw dislocation. The first two mechanisms are governed by exponential laws and apply to the ( 10 1 ¯ 0 ) surface, but the third is governed by a parabolic law and applies to the (0001) surface of the graphite...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... are required). Most rollers used for tube spinning are made from tool steels hardened to HRC 60 or slightly higher. BARS, bar sections, structural shapes, and long parts are straightened by bending, twisting, or stretching. Deviation from straightness in round bars may be expressed either as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... adequate radius and joined around the circumference as they penetrated to the center. 1.13× Figure 189 is a view of a drive shaft (actual size shown) of AISI 1035 steel, with a hardness of 34 HRC, that fractured under torsional overload, twisting off in a fashion that produced a surface almost as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... propagation of a pipe-twisting motion along the pipe. It is axially symmetric; that is to say, the motion is the same at all circumferential locations, and it is perfectly nondispersive. The elements of one of the rings of the transducer are excited concurrently by an electrical signal. Their piezoelectric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... “ Tilt and Twist Boundaries and Loading Mode ” in this article). Fig. 33 Macroscale brittle crack propagation due to combined mode I and mode II loading. As cracks grow from the preexisting cracklike imperfection, crack curvature develops because of growth on a plane of maximum normal stress...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., however, the compression test is less suited to assessing workability in extrusion and drawing than might be imagined. The torsion, or twist, test is widely used to assess workability in cylindrical stock (see the article “Torsion Testing to Assess Bulk Workability”). Even where the load is not measured...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of the moment, M , to deform the specimen and the angle of twist, θ, or the number of turns (θ = 2π rad per turn). The shear stress, τ, on the outer surface of the specimen is given by the following: (Eq 1) τ = M ( 3 + m + n ) 2 π r 3 where r is the specimen radius...