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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... tabulates the assorted structure types of metallurgical interest arranged according to Pearson symbol. It also provides information on crystal defects in all real crystals, explaining some significant ones, such as point defects, line defects, stacking faults, and twins. atom position crystal defects...
Book Chapter

By Sammy Tin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., diffusional creep, twinning during creep deformation, and deformation mechanism maps. It discusses the creep-strengthening mechanisms for most structural engineering components. The article provides a description of the microstructural modeling of creep in engineering alloys. creep deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Plastic deformation can occur in metals from various mechanisms, such as slip, twinning, diffusion creep, grain-boundary sliding, grain rotation, and deformation-induced phase transformations. This article emphasizes on the mechanism of slip and twinning under cold working conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... geometry stress raisers stress-strain behavior twinning unnotched specimen void growth ALTHOUGH FRACTURE can be apparently brittle at the macroscale (without visible distortion), the fracture process at the microscale can be brittle, ductile, alternating, or mixed, as discussed in the preceding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract Carbon arc welding (CAW) utilizes a nonconsumable electrode, made of carbon or graphite, to establish an arc between itself and either a workpiece or another carbon electrode. This article describes the operation modes of the CAW process: single-electrode operation and twin-electrode...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... This article provides a brief review of the terms and basic concepts associated with crystal structures. It also discusses some of the significant defects obstructing plastic flow in real crystals, namely point defects, line defects, stacking faults, twins, and cold work. Several tables in the article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., diffusionless (martensitic) phase transformation as occurs with face-centered cubic to hexagonal close-packed transformation in cobalt-chromium alloys, stacking faults and twins and their role in this transformation. It also includes strengthening mechanisms that are responsible for the mechanical properties of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article describes the extrusion process, which converts soft, plastic material into a particular form using an extruder, or screw conveyer. It discusses the two main types of plastic extruders, twin-screw and single-screw, estimation of extruder capacity, and design and operations...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... continuous processes, namely, twin-roll strip casting, slab casting, and wheel-belt processes. It concludes with information on postsolidification processes, including stress relief and scalping. direct chill process solidification twin-roll strip casting wheel-belt process ingot molten-metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... models performed much more satisfactorily than Taylor models, particularly with updating of the grain shapes during deformation. However, it was found that, regardless of whether twinning was incorporated in the model, the subdivision of a grain into cell blocks, controlled by slip planarity, resulted in...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005212
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... planar and isothermal. Some of the silicon crystals in the eutectic are interconnected, and the individual silicon crystals are irregular, banded, and tend to contain numerous {111} growth twins. In the region marked “B,” silicon assumes a variety of morphologies depending on the temperature gradient ( G...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... unrotated and undistorted. A second deformation, therefore, is required to keep the habit plane undistorted and constrained to the parent phase. Figure 4(c) and (d) show how this deformation can occur by slip or twinning, respectively ( Ref 3 ). Fig. 4 Diagram illustrating both deformations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... strain rate of 5 s −1 ) of Alloy AZ31 at various homologous temperatures ( T / T M ). (c) Hot compression flow curves from extruded AZ31B compressed parallel to the extrusion axis show the sigmoidal hardening profile at lower temperatures due to mechanical twinning. RT, room temperature. (d) Effect of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... orientation. Deformation also occurs by twinning, which is favored over slip by coarse grain size, high purity, and low-temperature deformation. The hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal structure is less symmetrical than the body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice. As a result, directionality in certain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... one hase within the other can only take place if either the nucleating phase or the surrounding phase is able to adapt its shape to accommodate the new structure. In the case of Nitinol, that is accomplished by twinning in the martensitic phase. While the details of martensite twinning are beyond the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... also be etched to reveal the microstructure. However, the microstructure often is revealed more clearly using cross-polarized light examination of an as-polished, unetched specimen. Figure 12 shows the twinned microstructure of as-cast, pure orthorhombic bismuth in the as-polished condition in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... a small fraction of the total range of possible misorientations. Therefore, most random boundaries, formed by the growing together of two grains will be large-angle boundaries—that is, will have more than 10° misorientation. All large-angle boundaries except twin or coincidence boundaries have...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... zone adjacent to grain boundary River pattern or fan pattern Cleavage fracture; crack runs “down” river; fan rays point to initiation site within a grain (see Fig. 10 ) Tongues Twinning deformation during rapid crack propagation (see Fig. 28 ) Flutes on transgranular fracture surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or appearances and do not consider the microscopic mechanisms (i.e., slip, twinning, viscous flow, cleavage) that cause fracture. A fracture may appear to be macroscopically brittle, but the cracking process may occur by a ductile mechanism. Examples in which the cracking mechanism is ductile but for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of these fractography concepts. At homologous temperatures low enough that creep deformation does not contribute to strain prior to or accompanying crack propagation ( T H < ~0.4 T M ), the mechanism of permanent deformation in metallic materials is by slip or deformation twinning. The...