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turbulent flow

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on the basic turbulent flow, and the thermal, mass-transfer, and hydrodynamic phenomena for use in modeling physical processes during induction melting. It provides a discussion on transport phenomena equations that includes the approximation of convective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...Abstract Abstract Quenching severity is agitation-dependent and therefore, magnitude and turbulence of fluid flow around a part in the quench zone are critically important relative to the uniformity of heat transfer throughout the quenching process. This article provides an overview...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... metal and exaggerate the thermal degradation of the mold medium as well as increase costs. In addition, the mold filling time should be kept shorter than the mold producing time of the molding equipment to maximize productivity. Minimizing Turbulence Turbulent filling and flow in the gating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... an important factor at high currents, because these jets can depress the surface of the weld pool and alter heat transfer to it. The rapid gas expansion can cause the flow to deviate from laminar and, in extreme cases, the flow can become turbulent. Turbulence tends to mix atmospheric contaminants into the arc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Flow and geometry Friction coefficient equation Restriction and remarks Laminar flow in either smooth or rough pipe f = 64 Re Re < 2,000 Turbulent flow in smooth pipe and parallel planes 1 f 4 = 4   log D e + 2 . 28 − 4  log Re...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... transmission of heat or the protection of a construction most effectively against heat losses or gains. Three recognized modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and thermal radiation. They differ entirely in physical mechanism and governing laws. In conduction, heat flows from a high-temperature...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Other examples include turbulence models, combustion models, and multiphase flow models. All models necessarily introduce imprecision, and an ongoing goal of research is to improve the accuracy of these models. Other issues for three-dimensional engineering CFD include geometry acquisition and grid...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in steel castings arise from the oxidation of metal during the pouring operation. This is known as reoxidation, and takes place when the turbulent flow of the metal in the gating system causes the metal to break up into small droplets, which then react with the oxygen in the air in the gating system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... depress the surface of the weld pool and alter heat transfer to it. The rapid gas expansion can cause the flow to deviate from laminar and, in extreme cases, the flow can become turbulent. Turbulence tends to mix atmospheric contaminants into the arc, often where they can do the most harm: at the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... modifications to the governing PDEs. Examples of models include turbulence models, combustion models, and multiphase flow models. All models necessarily introduce imprecision, and an ongoing goal of research is to improve the accuracy of these models. Other issues for three-dimensional engineering CFD...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... are “modeled” through modifications to the governing PDEs. Examples of models include turbulence models, combustion models, and multiphase flow models. All models necessarily introduce imprecision, and an ongoing goal of research is to improve the accuracy of these models. Other issues for three...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... flat bond interface. Turbulent fluid flow was separated into two regimes: At intermediate collision-point velocities, the flow was described by vortice formation into a von Karman vortex street and the production of a wavy bond interface At high collision-point velocities, the flow...
Book Chapter

By Paul T. Vianco
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
.... Dross formation tends to be high in wave soldering due to the large surface areas of solder exposed to the atmosphere (which is further aggravated by the turbulent flow of the solder in the pot). Dross particles can become embedded in the solder joints as well as disturb the peel back of the solder upon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... heat-transfer texts. The boiling heat flux can be evaluated using Eq 11 . These fundamental studies show that quenchants mediate heat transfer by the formation of fluid films around the hot metal parts. Fluid flow rates and turbulence (these are two components of the general term agitation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... for stabilizing the plasma arc. This magnetic field gives rise to a swirling motion in the circumferential direction that significantly affects mixing in the molten pool. The flow in the molten pool (and the slag in ESR) is turbulent with a very nonuniform mixing, and the motion decays rapidly in the mushy region...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is not immediately available. Generally, detection can be accomplished using instruments that are already installed in the system. Acoustic Methods Turbulent flow of a pressurized gas through a leak produces sound of both sonic and ultrasonic frequencies. If the leak is large, it probably can be detected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., and morphology of the inclusions coming from upstream processing prior to casting. Obtaining this knowledge ideally involves modeling the multiphase fluid flow, turbulent mixing and diffusion, species transport, chemical reactions, and particle interactions that create the inclusions in upstream processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... ). Such high velocities in small confined spaces typically lead to turbulent weld pools. A criterion has been given by Atthey ( Ref 28 ), ased on weld pool width ( w ), maximum velocity ( u max ), density (ρ), and viscosity (μ). The weld pool flow is turbulent if the following condition is met: (Eq 17...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... due to an enhanced mass transport in the two-phase region. Under forced convection, a laminar flow changes dendritic growth morphology to a rosette, whereas a turbulent flow changes growth morphology from a rosette to a sphere. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the observed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and flow regime. In general terms, this is manifested as static conditions (i.e., little or no flow) at low velocities, stratified flow at intermediate conditions, and turbulent flow at higher flow rates. One measure that can be used to define the flow conditions is the superficial gas velocity. In liquid...