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tungsten tip design

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Plasma melting is a material-processing technique in which the heat of thermal plasma is used to melt a material. This article discusses two typical design principles of plasma torches in the transferred mode: the tungsten tip design and the hollow copper electrode design. It describes...
Image
Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 4 Design concepts for plasma arc torches in the transferred mode. (a) Torch with tungsten tip and concentric gas flow. (b) Torch with hollow copper electrode and vortex generator More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... shape and shielding gas composition in the GTAW process. arc welding cathode tip shape electron discharge gas tungsten arc welding heat transfer nonthermionic emission shielding gas composition thermionic emission THE GAS-TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW) process is performed using a welding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... for the positive cycle (which provides oxide removal or cleaning action). This waveform design provides control (although limited) of the time between electrode positive and electrode negative, which produces more heat in the weld and allows less heat back to the tungsten electrode. A true square wave...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... mechanisms and the methods available for holding the carbide tool. The article is limited to tungsten carbide cobalt-base materials. cemented carbides cutting tools cobalt-base materials machining applications mechanical properties nonmachining applications physical properties tungsten carbide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005582
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... compared with the broader, conical arc of the GTAW process. The greater complexity of the PAW torch design and the greater number of parts requires more scheduled maintenance. The accurate set-back of the electrode tip, with respect to the nozzle orifice, is required to maintain consistent results. However...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... by the imposed welding current until the electron energy at the cathode tip exceeds the work function (energy required to strip off an electron). This case applies to the general case of DCEN, where the tungsten electrode is the emitter, or cathode. Pure tungsten electrodes must be heated to their melting point...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... source for the GMAW part of the system. A special torch incorporating both a contact tip for the GMAW element and a cathode for the PAW element is required. The initial design incorporated an offset tungsten electrode, as well as a concentric conduit and contact tip for the delivery of the consumable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... of the system. A special torch incorporating both a contact tip for the GMAW element and a cathode for the PAW element is required. The initial design incorporated an offset tungsten electrode, as well as a concentric conduit and contact tip for the delivery of the consumable wire ( Fig. 1 ). A later design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., it also reduces the tolerance of the process to joint gaps and misalignment, when compared with the broader, conical arc of the GTAW process. The greater complexity of the PAW torch design and the greater number of parts requires more scheduled maintenance. The accurate set-back of the electrode tip...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... surfaces have now become of increasing interest. This article introduces various STM and AFM designs, various operating modes, and various probes (tips). Introduction The STM developed by Dr. Gerd Binnig and his colleagues in 1981 at the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, Rueschlikon, Switzerland...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... 17.22 17.22 30 30 HRC 765 111 1138 165 C Tungsten-graphite-silver 48Ag-51.75W-0.25C PSR 13.21 13.38 65 55 HRB … … 552 80 C Circuit breakers, arcing tips 46Ag-53W-1C PSR 13.58 12.85 55 85 HRB … … … … C 45Ag-50W-5C PSR 11.00 10.60 37–43 45–55 HRB … … 621...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
..., the arc stability, starting capability, and tip life improve. These electrodes can be used in place of thoriated tungsten with traditional and inverter-based power sources. Thoriated Tungsten (EWTh-1 and 2) Tungsten electrodes containing 1% Th (yellow) or 2% Th (red) have greater electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... or a tungsten element held in a solid-copper holder, or it can be hollow and have two pieces (copper and the electrode element) that allow direct water or gas cooling. Because proper cooling will promote both tip and electrode life, PAC torches designed for cutting above 150 A are usually water cooled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0007019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... Several of the fission power plants designed and built in the 1960s and 1970s are still operational today (2023). For some power plant parts, the original design data, drawings, or even manufacturing jigs or dies no longer exist. For others, manufacturing lead times may be unacceptably long...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005580
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... that is manually or mechanically moved along the joint (or the work may be moved under a stationary electrode). The electrode may be a carbon or tungsten rod, of which the sole purpose is to carry the current and sustain the electric arc between its tip and the workpiece. Or, it may be a specially prepared rod...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... metal binder. These materials were first developed in Germany in the early 1920s in response to demands for a die material having sufficient wear resistance for drawing tungsten incandescent filament wires to replace the expensive diamond dies then in use. The first cemented carbide to be produced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... internal temperature buildup in the carbon electrode. Design of Electrodes Commercially available resistance seam welding electrodes are used where the design and dimensions of workpiece and joint permit. The electrode tip is machined, where necessary, to provide a tip shape and face dimensions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006494
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... on machining conditions or shape of the workpiece. Design of single-point cutting tools for machining aluminum alloys of A and B machinability ratings Table 5 Design of single-point cutting tools for machining aluminum alloys of A and B machinability ratings Tool details High-speed steel Tungsten...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001372
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., and designs for injector mixing chambers differ considerably in detail. Welding Tips Welding tips are replaceable nozzles that control gas flow through the diameter of the exit orifice. Tips of various orifice diameter are usually available for any welding torch. Orifice diameters are identified...