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tube-to-tubesheet joint

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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 35 Dual-frequency inspection of tubesheet showing tube expansion, offset, and overlay regions of rolled areas. (a) Cross-sectional view of tubesheet region. (b) Traces showing typical rolled joints. (c) Traces showing incorrect tubesheet rolled joints. The high-frequency (700 kHz) traces More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... caused by steam impingement (erosion), tube-to-tubesheet joint leaks, mechanical ruptures from foreign object impact, and tube vibration resulting in fretting wear and fatigue ( Ref 1 , Ref 2 , Ref 3 ). Purely mechanical failures are not discussed further. Various methods are used to locate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and drilling of tubesheets and tube-support plates to reasonable tolerances eases tube insertion and minimizes stresses induced during the fabrication of heat exchangers. Overrolling the tube past the tubesheet may introduce residual stresses. Tubes rarely fail within the tubesheet, but failure behind...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... arrangement of these materials may make galvanic-corrosion prediction difficult because of the effects of solution (electrolyte) resistance on the corrosion rates. An example of this is a heat-exchanger tube in a tubesheet. Assuming the tube to be anodic to the tubesheet, areas of the tube near the tubesheet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... in impedance of eddy-current inspection coils caused by small flaws Improved instrumentation resulting from the development of vacuum tubes, semiconductors, integrated circuits, and microprocessors which led to better measurement techniques and response to subtle changes in the flow of eddy currents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... not involve melting. As shown in Fig. 2 , there are many different processes available for welding metals ( Ref 3 ), and the selection depends on the type of material, geometry, application, cost, and properties targeted at the joint, among others. When metals are welded together, acceptance criteria...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...) current modulation Low-frequency pulse allows better control over weld pool behavior; high-frequency pulse improves arc stiffness Argon As above 1 to approx. 6 mm (0.04 to 0.24 in.) Automatic gas temperature welding of tubes or tubes to tubesheets to improve consistency of penetration or (high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001376
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... welding transition joints for hermetic welds between titanium, aluminum, and zirconium and stainless steel Shop Welding Applications Small, specialty EXW devices have been developed for a few unique shop applications. Explosion welding is used in heat exchanger shops for joining tubes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., firewalls, fairings, hydraulic tubing, deicing ductings, SPF parts  Engines Compressor disks and blades, fan disks and blades, casings, afterburner cowlings, flange rings, spacers, bolts, hydraulic tubing, hot-air ducts, helicopter rotor hubs  Satellites, rockets Rocket engine casings, fuel tanks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... protective coating. If inert barrier coatings are employed, both the anode and cathode must be protected—for example, the heads, tubesheets, and tubes (for a distance of the first 4 to 6 tube diameters on the tube side) of a water- cooled heat exchanger. Electrochemical Techniques Electrochemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... clad plates of almost any metal combination can be manufactured economically. Applications of EXW are diverse and include the production of sandwiched metal for coinage ( Ref 4 ), the production of titanium-to-stainless steel transition joints in the Apollo spacecraft ( Ref 5 ), and production...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... active (electronegative) metal tends to become a sacrificial anode and supply cathodic protection to the more noble metal. Such situations are often encountered in heat exchangers in which carbon steel tubesheets are used with copper alloy tubes and at junctions between piping, fasteners, or corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... (−50 °F). Upon subsequent shell-side repressurization with hot product (>204 °C, or 400 °F), the exchanger catastrophically failed. The initiation point for the fracture was a weld defect on the tube side of the exchanger at the channel-to-tubesheet weld ( Ref 8 ). Thermal stress due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... the steam generator tubes, and then recirculated to the nuclear core. The interconnecting primary piping is made of austenitic stainless steel, typically type 304L, while the steam generator tubes are usually fabricated from a nickel-base alloy such as Alloy 600 and more recently, Alloy 690, or in some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... insert ring. Similar attack has occurred in stainless shell and tube heat exchangers at the rolled tube-to-tubesheet joints and has been solved by seal welding the joints with appropriate weld filler metal and process parameters. In many cases, crevices are either too costly or impossible to design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... metals with high manganese contents and overestimate the FN of highly alloyed weld metals, such as alloy 309. Consequently, the Welding Research Council both funded and collected data for the development of a new, more-accurate diagram using computer mapping techniques ( Ref 3 , 4 ). A joint effort...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... applications for ceramics that make use of wear resistance include dies for hot extrusion of metal rods and tubes, inserts for tablesetting, and paper lapping dies, seals, and bearings. Wear can be organized into two categories: impingement wear and rubbing wear. Impingement wear involves particles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... Dezincification may be either plug-type ( Fig. 1 ) or layer-type ( Fig. 2 ). Fig. 1 Plug-type dezincification cross section in a yellow brass (C26000, cartridge brass) tube. Original magnification 15×. Source: Used with permission of ASTM International Fig. 2 Layer-type dezincification cross...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and pressures, 2.25Cr-1Mo steel is widely used. For improved corrosion resistance, these are often overlaid with stainless steels such as type 347. Other applications for low-alloy steels are furnace tubes, heat-exchangers shells, piping, and separator drums. Additional information is provided in the articles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... cracking failures are found often at inlet or outlet ends where the tubes have been expanded into the tubesheet. Stress-corrosion cracking may be reduced by either removing applied or residual stresses or avoiding concentrated corrodents. The reduction of corrodents by avoiding boiler upsets...