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true stress-strain curve analysis

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... stress-strain curve THIS ARTICLE AIMS TO DESCRIBE a method to predict mechanical properties of cast iron materials and illustrate how to use the predictions in computer-aided tools for the analysis of castings subjected to load. The manufacturing process gives cast iron castings properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.... The point of necking at maximum load can be obtained from the true stress-true strain curve by finding the point on the curve having a subtangent of unity. The article concludes with an overview of the ductility measurements performed by notch tensile and compression tests. mechanical behavior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... in crack initiation. It presents an overview of the strain-based, as opposed to stress-based, criterion of material behavior and fatigue analysis. The article describes the cyclic stress-strain behavior of metals to illustrate the inadequacy of the monotonic or tensile stress-strain curve in accounting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... be developed in the compression test. The first type is associated with a maximum in the true stress-strain curve. The second type concerns inhomogeneous deformation and shear band formation. Figure 7 shows the type of plastic instability that occurs in some materials in hot compression testing. At certain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... complicates the determination of the true axial compression stress when the test is used to measure the stress-strain curve (flow properties) of the material. However, as the article “Cold Upset Testing,” describes, this feature of the compression test can be used as a workability test by measuring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... deformation process occurs. They are a plot of true stress versus true strain at constant temperature and strain rate. The equation that describes the curve is called its constitutive equation. This is an important input to the mathematical model for the deformation process that is used to determine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... how the application of the Bridgman correction changes the true-stress/true-strain curve. The values of a / R needed for the analysis can be obtained either by straining a specimen a given amount beyond necking and unloading to measure a and R directly, or by measuring these parameters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... a diffuse neck develops and the load drops gradually, and, lastly, a period of rapid load drop during which the flow is highly localized (usually in the center of the specimen gage length) and failure occurs. The engineering stress-strain curve does not give a true indication of the deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... stresses as the design progresses and ensure that the die face geometry and strain assignments do not result in stresses that will twist the part out of shape when they relax as the die opens. True stresses in the direction along the line of analysis and normal (i.e., into and out of the drawing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... diameter. By combining the two quantities, a true-stress/true-strain curve, also termed flow curve, is obtained. Mention hereafter of stress-strain curve refers to the true-stress/true-strain curve. The tests needed to obtain the mechanical properties required for most bulk processing modeling...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... bound ( Ref 9 ). Option 2 FAC Option 2 FAC is recommended for materials with a high initial work-hardening rate, (e.g., strain-aging mild steels), or for materials with a discontinuous yield point, or when the complete material true stress-strain curve is known. The Option 2 FAC was developed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
..., it is suggested that the true strain distribution ( Eq 2 ) be used. For bending to a radius of curvature equal to R n , the strain distribution and the subsequent stress distribution (from the σ − ε curve or from a known constitutive equation for the σ − ε dependence) can be found. The moment, M , required...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... and compressive stresses in the bend zone. Because the tensile stresses go from zero at point 0 on the neutral axis to a maximum value at point X on the outside surface, the stress-strain curve developed by the standard tensile test may be used for an analysis of bending. For good bend design, the tensile stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to their characteristic shape. On the engineering stress-strain curve, initiation of necking occurs after uniform elongation, which is the engineering strain associated with the ultimate tensile strength. Engineering stress is defined as the load divided by the initial cross-sectional area of the dog bone, while true...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... yield is greater than the offset yield, but for the USS T-1 steel ( Fig. 4a ), the opposite is true. The amount of the difference between the two values is dependent upon the slope of the stress-strain curve between the two intersections. When the stress-strain data pairs are sampled by a computer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... in the sample. Such data, when combined with the transmitted wave-data measuring force, can provide the needed data to calculate true stress. Given that the volume constancy requirement is satisfied in the sample, Eq 12 and 13 can be used to determine the dynamic stress-strain curve of the sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... is defined as: (Eq 3) n = d   ln   σ T d   ln   ε where σ T is the true stress (load/instantaneous area) and ε is true strain, as defined by Eq 2 . This relationship implies that the true stress-strain curve of the material can be approximated by a power law constitutive equation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... inevitably during testing, especially at high strain rates. Because isothermal stress-strain curves are desired for analysis, correction for deformation heating is necessary. The commonly used equation for calculating temperature rise during deformation is ( Ref 25 ): (Eq 12) Δ T = α ∫ 0 ε...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... stress-strain curve. (b) True stress-strain curve. (c) Schematic illustration of dimensional changes during the test. Source: Ref 2 Figure 1(b) illustrates the true stress-strain representation of the same tension-test data. In this case, before necking occurs, the following relationships...