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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., ultrasonic waves are classified as longitudinal waves, transverse (shear) waves, surface (Rayleigh) waves, and Lamb waves. These four types of waves are described in the following sections ( Ref 1 , 5 ). Longitudinal waves, sometimes called compression waves, are the type of ultrasonic waves most widely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... necking of both fibers and matrix. Radial cracks propagating along fiber grain boundaries were caused by the circumferential stresses generated during reduction of the cross-sectional area (∼50%) during necking. Higher-magnification views revealed a fibrous, ductile fracture surface. SEM, 250× (C. Kim...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... direction. (c) Stresses in the transverse direction. Source: Ref 20 Fig. 9 The calculated stress (σ z ) distribution in plate rolling shown three dimensionally. Source: Ref 20 During the rolling of a given shape or section, the cross section is not deformed uniformly, as can easily...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... unnecessary in transverse testing. The surface condition of the bar will affect the transverse test but not the tension test made on a machined specimen. Conversely, the presence of coarse graphite in the center of the bar, which can occur in an iron that is very section sensitive, will affect the tension...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... rolled on a rod mill from a billet of the same size at the same rolling temperatures. For bars about 50 to 100 mm in diameter, strength may not decrease with section size, but transverse ductility and notched stress-rupture strength at room temperature do become lower. In diameters greater than about 75...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on some of the factors pertinent to atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). It begins by describing the working principle, critical components, and construction of flame atomic absorption instrumentation. This is followed by sections discussing various types of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... operations in design. The article describes the factors that control casting tolerances and provides specific tips for designing castings with uniform wall thickness and unequal sections, designing thin sections, designing for economical coring, designing for functional packaging, and core design principles...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article begins with an overview of classes and applications of gray iron. It discusses the castability of gray iron in terms of section sensitivity and fluidity. The article provides information on the dimensions of prevailing sections recommended for gray irons and reviews the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... steel sheet requires at least three specimens: a longitudinal cross section, which runs parallel to the rolling direction; a transverse cross section, which runs perpendicular to the rolling direction, and a surface specimen taken parallel to the rolling plane and viewed perpendicular to the rolling...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Pultrusion is an automated process for manufacturing composite materials into continuous, constant cross-sectional profiles. The article provides an overview of the pultrusion process and the wide range of materials that can be used to provide a broad spectrum of composite properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... this condition. This is followed by a section on equipment used in RBS analysis. Channel-energy conversion, energy-depth conversion, and separation of the dechanneling background are then discussed as the main steps of RBS data analysis. The article also discusses the applications of RBS—including...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... quantitative geometrical methods for characterizing nonplanar fracture surfaces. Prominent techniques for studying fracture surfaces are based on the projected images, stereoscopic viewing, and sectioning. The article provides information on various roughness and materials-related parameters for profiles and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-type, and multiple-ram). It further discusses the technologies used in the design of dies, terminology, and materials selection for dies for the most common hot-forging processes, particularly those using vertical presses, hammers, and horizontal forging machines. A brief section is included on...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... sections are also discussed. thin-wall steel castings castability graphite molds induction melting permanent mold castings sand mold castings steels solidification characteristics melting melt treatment melting furnaces direct arc melting boiling shape casting tolerances core size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... microscope and describes transmission Kikuchi diffraction. It begins with a discussion on the origins of EBSD and the collection of EBSD patterns. This is followed by sections providing information on EBSD spatial resolution and system operation of EBSD. Various factors pertinent to perform an EBSD...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... discusses the three major inspection techniques for tubular sections, namely, the double-wall, double-image technique; the double-wall, single-image technique; and the single-wall, single-image technique. It illustrates the arrangements of penetrameters and identification markers for the radiography of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is a form of corrosion and produces wastage in that the stress-corrosion cracks penetrate the cross-sectional thickness of a component over time and deteriorate its mechanical strength. Although there are factors common among the different forms of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes the types of steels, including high-strength structural carbon steels and high-strength low-alloy steels (HSLA), available in all standard wrought forms such as sheet, strip, plate, structural shapes, bars, bar-size shapes. It discusses the special sections that...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003138
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Magnesium and magnesium alloys have been employed in a wide variety of structural applications because of their favorable combination of tensile strength, elastic modulus, and low density. Providing a brief section on occurrence, production, and uses of magnesium, this article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., section size, and martensitic transformation in quenched titanium alloys. It shows how residual stresses in titanium alloys are evaluated and controlled. Finally, the article describes the stress-relief treatments used to reduce residual stresses. alloying aluminum hardenability heat treatment...