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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... furnaces or transport crucibles, molten-metal transfer pumps, teeming ladles, and dosing and pouring furnaces. degassing pouring furnaces molten-metal treatments fluxing molten-metal filtration launders tundishes holding furnaces transport crucibles molten-metal transfer pumps teeming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the basic turbulent flow, and the thermal, mass-transfer, and hydrodynamic phenomena for use in modeling physical processes during induction melting. It provides a discussion on transport phenomena equations that includes the approximation of convective terms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005895
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... homogenization between the upper and lower parts of the melt; however, they help to separate out suspended oxides and thus encourage deposits to form on the crucible wall. The turbulent, kinetic energy k of the melt flow and the associated transport of heat and material in the melt are proportional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... 7. Degassing and refining the melts In the transport crucible, better in a holding crucible or receptacle or in a dosing furnace with bottom blocks; effective refining and fastest method using quick-running rotor for gas feeding, 7–10 l/min argon or nitrogen, 6–10 min Gas flushing lance...
Book Chapter

By G. Keough
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Skull melting refers to the use of furnaces with water-cooled crucibles that freeze a solid “skull” of material on the crucible wall. This article describes the basic components, operating pressure, advantages, and applications of vacuum arc and induction skull melting furnaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... melting processes and the improvements in the efficiency of melting processes in induction crucible furnaces. It provides energetic and ecological comparisons of different furnaces for melting of cast iron and aluminum. The article also describes the energy and power management of induction melting...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... an extraordinary effect on the metal/slag reaction because the ceramic outer wall reacts with the liquid metal and with the slag. In a VIM furnace, slag would be transported to the crucible wall by the characteristic bath movement. The result is that the slag solidifies at the wall and therefore has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005904
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... to approximately ΔC = 0.1%. If stronger carburizing is required, the bath level should reach the top of the coil or extend a maximum of 100 mm (4.0 in.) above it. As shown by the diagram in Fig. 6 , a bath meniscus then forms. The carbon thus is transported by the melt flowing to the crucible wall in ring form...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... ( Ref 15 ). 1978 Rautomead Dundee introduced horizontal and vertical continuous casting equipment based on the all-graphite system, with the Unicast principle of integrated melt, stabilization, and cast from a single crucible ( Ref 16 ). In 1938, Poland and Lindner were granted a U.S. patent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005905
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
...: Tandem systems are deployed for continuous supply of the pouring stations. Traveling supply containers are used for charging. These transport the charge material to the crucible furnace by a vibration feeder or conveyor belt. Figure 7 shows a 2.5 ton furnace while tapping the aluminum melt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... process are transported to the track site and set into place. Then, the CWR sections are joined by thermite welding. A short preheating process is typically used in the thermite welding of rail. The thermite process is also utilized to replace rail defects, to weld insulated joint assemblies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... of specialized cupolas such as cokeless cupola and plasma-fired cupola. Melting in iron foundries is a major application of induction furnaces. The article describes the operations of two induction furnaces: the channel induction furnace and the induction crucible furnace. It explains the teapot principle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Melting Process in Induction Furnace with Cold Crucible , Proc. 5th Int. Scientific Colloquium: Modelling for Electromagnetic Processing , Hannover , 2008 , p 331 – 336 22. Kirpo M. , “Modeling of Turbulence Properties and Particle Transport in Recirculated Flows,” Ph.D. thesis (Physics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... One of the earliest patents was filed by Edwin Northrup in 1931. His invention was based on using rings made out of tungsten carbide and nickel that were stacked one upon another to form a container or crucible to melt glass within ( Ref 5 ). Northrup suggested this invention was well suited...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...; 12, base plate; 13, furnace head drive; 14, electrode; 15, three sliding contacts; 16, XY adjustment Unlike a VAR crucible, the ESR crucible is normally self-contained in that the inside and outside shells through which the cooling water runs are assembled as a single piece. A water-cooled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005899
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... risk of crack formation during use, or even during transport and handling. Graphite crucibles, which consist of approximately 40% C and have a capacity of 750 l (198 gal), are available for melting nonferrous metal alloys. They either are positioned freestanding in the induction furnace...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... less than 135 kg, or 300 lb) Furnace Types In stationary furnace installations, the crucible is set inside a refractory-lined shell. When the metal is molten, it is dipped out using a hand ladle, or the crucible is removed using tongs, placed in a yoke, and transported to the molds. In a push...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the electrode is heated to the melting point, drops of liquid metal that fall from the electrode face are collected in a lower crucible and rapidly solidified. However, ESR and VAR have very different melting methods, which have implications regarding the magnitude of cooling rates obtained and the nature...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... crucible, ladle, trough, or hearth. In electron beam refining, the material solidifies in a water-cooled continuous casting copper crucible or in an investment ceramic or graphite mold. This technology can be used for all materials that do not sublimate in vacuum. Competing processes include sintering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... ). Control the surroundings of the sample: An example is the use of thin-walled sapphire inserts between the sample and the platinum crucible in the differential scanning calorimeter to avoid reactions, but thin enough to maintain the high heat transfer of the metal crucible ( Ref 3 ). Elimination...