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transmitted polarized light

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Infrared (IR) spectra have been produced by transmission, that is, transmitting light through the sample, measuring the light intensity at the detector, and comparing it to the intensity obtained with no sample in the beam, all as a function of the infrared wavelength. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... intergranular and to determine if the fracture part is specific to any phase or constituent present. Although such specimens can be examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy is more efficient for such work, and certain information, such as the color or polarization response of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... include reflected light microscopy using polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, and wavelength dispersive analysis of X-rays. Macroscopic property characterization involves measurement of porosity, density, and surface area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... (Rayleigh) wave and ultrasonic polar scan techniques. electronic equipment pulse-echo method single-element transducer-based system surface wave technique transducers transmission method ultrasonic inspection ultrasonic polar scan technique THIS ARTICLE CONSIDERS the two primary methods...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... transmission) that remains the same regardless of the direction or the polarization of transmitted light is said to be isotropic. A material for which the refractive index depends on the direction and polarization of light is anisotropic. An anisotropic material is said to be optically birefringent. Some...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloys, grain size can be revealed adequately in the as-polished condition using polarized light. There are aspects of structure, termed macrostructure, which can be observed with the unaided eye. Macrostructural examination is often a prelude to microstructural examination but also includes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... generally refers to reflected light microscopy. In this method, light is reflected from the sample surface through the microscope objective to an eyepiece, view screen, or camera. Transmitted light is occasionally used for transparent and translucent materials. For low-magnification work (stereomicroscopy...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... in modern automotive air conditioning systems, have created a need for better solar reduction glass. Solar control automotive glass must reduce the solar energy transmitted without reducing the visible light transmission below the legal limit of 70%. Solar glass either reflects or absorbs the sun's...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... evaporated metal on a microscope slide can be determined by measuring the fraction of transmitted light, after suitable calibration. This requires a special substrate, however; it is not an in-line technique and will not be considered here. A basic requirement for using optical methods for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the electromagnetic wave, that is, the interaction of the electric and magnetic fields with the conductivity, permittivity, and permeability of the material. Microwaves behave much like light waves in that they travel in straight lines until they are reflected, refracted, diffracted, or scattered...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... longer than those of light waves, microwaves penetrate deeply into materials, with the depth of penetration dependent on the conductivity, permittivity, and permeability of the materials. Microwaves are also reflected from any internal boundaries and interact with the molecules that constitute the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., absorbance is logarithmically related to the ratio of the incident ( I 0 ) and transmitted ( I ) light intensities, which limits the range of usable measurements ( Ref 3 ). Obtaining the maximum sensitivity requires optimization of each parameter, that is, maximum production of atoms for observation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... the potential introduction or formation of reactive polar groups that may cause changes in compatibility and electrical and optical behavior of the polymer. Additionally, introduction of light-absorbing groups (chromophores) may cause discoloration and internal cyclization of polymer chains, resulting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... broad use for electrical wire and cable jackets. GRS, Buna S SBR Styrene-butadiene Electrical properties generally good but not specifically outstanding in any area Buna N, nitrile NBR Acrylonitrile-butadiene Electrical properties not outstanding; probably degraded by molecular polarity of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (bubbler or squirter) techniques are most effective because they provide efficient and relatively uniform coupling between the search units and the test piece. In contrast to electromagnetic waves, such as light and x-rays, ultrasonic waves are mechanical waves consisting of oscillations, or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... exposure still occurs in indoor environments exposed to sunlight. Even though window glass filters out most UV light, the energy that transmits through the glass is still sufficient to degrade and fade most materials, including coatings over time. It is generally accepted that radiation in the visible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... unpolarized light, whereas the use in reflection requires polarizing optics for optimal operation. Therefore, often in practice, especially if a large core multimode fiber is used to transmit light to the Fabry-Perot, the transmission configuration gains a sensitivity factor of approximately 2 with...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627081788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... strongly piezoelectric, and rapid strides have been made in their development and use as actuator motors, as ultrasonic transducers, and for electromechanical sensing. Piezoelectrics (PLZT) also elicit wide interest as electrooptic materials for such applications as high-speed shutters, switches, and light...