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transmitted light microscopy

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... microscopy. Figure 14(a) shows the replica photographed with oblique illumination from a point source lamp, and Fig. 14(b) shows the same area using transmitted light. Carbon was then vapor deposited onto the replica, and it was photographed again using oblique light from a point source ( Fig. 14c...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., and spectrometry techniques with data analysis. electron diffraction transmission electron microscopy crystal structure Microstructure observation is an essential approach for materials characterization, which is primarily performed by using light optical microscopy and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... to a probe used in a light lever atomic force microscope (AFM). They are the chip, cantilever, and tip. (b) Scanning electron microscopy image of a microfabricated tip used in an AFM The AFM probes are created with MEMS manufacturing techniques. There are several variables that are used when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article discusses the fundamentals and operating principles of the following acoustic microscopy methods: scanning laser acoustic microscopy, C-mode scanning acoustic microscopy, and scanning acoustic microscopy. It describes the applications of acoustic microscopy for detecting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... advantages of the SEM over the optical microscope as a tool for examining surfaces are improvements in resolution and depth of field. Information on the determination of resolution and depth of field in the optical microscope is provided in the article “Light Microscopy” in Metallography and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... include reflected light microscopy using polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, and wavelength dispersive analysis of X-rays. Macroscopic property characterization involves measurement of porosity, density, and surface area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... generally refers to reflected light microscopy. In this method, light is reflected from the sample surface through the microscope objective to an eyepiece, view screen, or camera. Transmitted light is occasionally used for transparent and translucent materials. For low-magnification work (stereomicroscopy...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes the methods and equipments involved in the preparation of specimens for examination by light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis for microindentation hardness testing, and for quantification of microstructural parameters...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... microscopy are covered in the Section “Metallography” and will not be repeated here. While light microscopy is an important metallurgical tool, it has a number of limitations: Spatial resolution: Conventional light microscopes cannot resolve features smaller than ∼1 μm. Depth of field: Light...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... determined from fracture or polished cross sections using either light or scanning electron microscopy. Some estimates of grain size or porosity can also be made in these cases, if an appropriate sample preparation method is used. Etching may be necessary before polished cross sections can reveal grain or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... evaporated metal on a microscope slide can be determined by measuring the fraction of transmitted light, after suitable calibration. This requires a special substrate, however; it is not an in-line technique and will not be considered here. A basic requirement for using optical methods for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the time of transit of an ultrasound wave through the testpiece Attenuation of ultrasound waves caused by absorption and scattering within the testpiece Features seen in the spectral response for either a transmitted or a reflected signal Most conventional ultrasonic inspection is performed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627081788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... occurred much later. Techniques were developed in the 1950s for radioastronomy ( Ref 2 ), and experimental work progressed through the 1960s, primarily using nuclear tracer and electron microscopy data ( Ref 3 , 4 , 5 ). In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Nobel Prize winner G. Hounsfield at EMI, Ltd., in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the material. X-rays or gamma rays are the two types of waves used for this process. The radiography method works well for detecting and sizing volumetric flaws such as pores, voids, and inclusions. With the radiographic method, it is possible to examine a wide variety of materials ranging from light...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... removes the traces of oxide and stabilizes the product. Boron carbide is also a light and strong material. It can be prepared by reacting carbon yarn with BCl 3 and H 2 at high temperatures (i.e., a CVD process) ( Ref 33 ). Similar to the CVD processes described above, the gaseous mixture enters at...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... water, in immersion testing. Energy also can be transmitted from a piezoelectric-element-based transducer to a part using a water jet, confined water column in a bubbler, or a soft-polymer-liquid filled wheel transducer ( Ref 3 ). Fig. 1 Schematic showing the range of (a) conventional and (b...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... those of light optical video microscopy. In general, there are three distinct viable imaging techniques made available by SR for the real-time investigation of solidification microstructures in alloys: two-dimensional x-ray topography, two-dimensional x-ray radiography, and ultrafast three-dimensional x...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... in a crosslinked coating film. Even if the film is thermoplastic, and not crosslinked, such inhomogeneities and phase separations still are present, and for the same reasons. The presence of low-molecular-weight regions in coating films has been demonstrated by electron and light microscopy studies...