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transmission electron microscopy

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) approach enables essentially simultaneous examination of microstructural features through imaging from lower magnifications to atomic resolution and the acquisition of chemical and crystallographic information from small regions of the thin...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., namely scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy. It briefly describes the operating principles, instrumentation which includes energy dispersive X-ray detectors, spatial resolution, typical use of the techniques, elemental analysis detection...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes the operation and capabilities of surface analysis methods of metals, including scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fractographs with illustrations. cleaning fractograph fracture surface scanning electron microscopy specimen replication transmission electron microscopy THE APPLICATION of the transmission electron microscope to the study of fracture surfaces and related phenomena made it possible to obtain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... microstructural analysis of metals, such as scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy, are then reviewed. The article contains tables listing analytical methods used for characterization of metals and alloys and surface analysis techniques. It ends by...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... include reflected light microscopy using polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, and wavelength dispersive analysis of X-rays. Macroscopic property characterization involves measurement of porosity, density, and surface area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... nanotechnology and the development of smart coatings have been dependent largely on the availability of analytical and imaging techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. ball milling chemical vapor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... 1465 °C (2670 °F) produces a coarse-grain film, while platinum (2090 °C, or 3795 °F) produces a finer film. Alloys such as platinum-carbon form very fine-grain films. The latter are required for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), but coarser films are adequate for routine SEM fractography because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., EDS and contrast by electron channeling, monochromatic CL imaging and ECCI, transmission-mode SEM, and in situ investigation using an environmental SEM. Revised from John D. Verhoeven, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Materials Characterization , Vol 10, ASM Handbook , ASM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... preparation scanning electron microscope scanning electron microscopy THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microscopic features of most solid materials. Compared to the light microscope, it expands the resolution range by more than 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique has proven to be very useful in the measurement of crystallographic textures, orientation relationships between phases, and both plastic and elastic strains. This article focuses on backscatter diffraction in a scanning electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... newer instruments to submicrometer sizes (additional information on electron guns is provided in the article “Transmission Electron Microscopy” in this Volume). The goniometer generally allows two sample motions: a rocking about an axis in the plane of the crystal surface and a rotation about an axis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...% range. Cylindrical-mirror analyzers have a large acceptance angle (42 ± 6° for the Physical Electronics CMA) integrated around the full 360° azimuthal angle and provide for high transmission. The wide angular acceptance enables signal reception simultaneously from a variety of angles. Coaxial location...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... magnifications by light microscopy, SEM, or replica transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the fracture mode, to confirm the fracture mechanism (observation of cleavage facets, ductile dimples, fatigue striations, and so on), and to detect features at the fracture origin Examine metallographic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... solving problems with new high-technology materials and components not previously available. The three acoustic microscope types can be as different from each other as are microradiography and electron microscopy. This discussion should provide the potential user with an awareness of the techniques and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... microscopes: electron microscopes, including scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) and transmission electron microscopes (TEMs), which use focused electron beams to generate images of surfaces; optical microscopes, which use focused light to generate images of surfaces; and the newest type of scanning probe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... article “Scanning Electron Microscopy.” The origins of the transmission electron microscope can be traced back to developments in electron optics during the 1920s and 1930s ( Ref 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 ). In 1926, after 15 years of intermittent work on the trajectory of electrons in magnetic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... copper- and aluminum-base metallization ( Ref 20 ). The ablated particles and crater morphology were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, FIB-SEM, and a surface-mapping microscope to evaluate laser ablation repetition rate, laser power, and beam diameter. Under optimized conditions, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... electron metallographic techniques, such as scanning and transmission electron microscopies. In recent years, many published technical articles contain scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, usually secondary electron images, at magnifications well under 1000×. These images are markedly inferior to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... microscope. In these cases, the metallographer must resort to replication techniques with examination later by the LM or SEM. The replication procedures for light microscopy are similar to those traditionally used for transmission electron microscope fractography ( Ref 4 – 6 ). Quite good results can be...