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transmission electron microscopes

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... dating back to the sixteenth century to the state-of-the-art work in electron fractography and quantitative fractography. It also describes the applications and limitations of scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. electron fractography fractography microfractography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... surfaces. The applications of quantitative fractography for striation spacings, precision matching, and crack path tortuosity are also discussed. quantitative fractography scanning electron microscopes surface area surface roughness transmission electron microscopes THE PRINCIPAL OBJECTIVE of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract The application of transmission electron microscope to the study of fracture surfaces and related phenomena has made it possible to obtain magnifications and depths of field much greater than those possible with light (optical) microscopes. This article reviews the methods for...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... solved, at least in part, with AEM. analytical electron microscopes analytical transmission electron microscopy bright-field microscopy data analysis defect analysis deformation dislocations electron diffraction electron energy loss spectroscopy electron guns grain-boundary segregation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... 10.1021/cm301548k 29. Viladot D. , Véron M. , Gemmi M. , Peiró F. , Portillo J. , Estradé S. , Mendoza J. , Llorca-Isern N. , and Nicolopoulos S. , Orientation and Phase Mapping in the Transmission Electron Microscope Using Precession-Assisted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... diffraction crystallographic texture References 1. Bramfitt B.L. and Michael J.R. , AEM Microanalysis of Phase Equilibria in Ni 3 Al Intermetallic Alloys Containing Iron , Materials Problem Solving with the Transmission Electron Microscope , Materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... order of magnitude to approximately 10 nm in routine instruments, with ultimate values below 3 nm. Useful magnification thus extends beyond 10,000× up to more than 100,000×, closing the gap between the light microscope and the transmission electron microscope. The depth of focus, ranging from 1 μm at...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... dramatically, by a factor of approximately 300. The first portion of this article explains how the scanning electron microscope functions and how it is able to provide these improvements over the optical microscope. Commercial scanning transmission electron microscopes became available around 1973, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Keller R.R. , Angularly-Selective Transmission Imaging in a Scanning Electron Microscope , Ultramicroscopy , Vol 167 , Aug 2016 , p 43 – 56 , 10.1016/j.ultramic.2016.05.001 10. Woehl T. and Keller R. , Dark-Field Image Contrast in Transmission Scanning ElectronMicroscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... transmission electron microscope. Compared to optical microscopy, the depth of focus, ranging from 1 μm at 10,000× to 2 mm (0.08 in.) at 10×, is larger by more than two orders of magnitude. References 1. Von Ardenne M. , Z. Phys. , 109 , 1938 , p 553 10.1007/BF01341584...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... University of Paris. Castaing converted a transmission electron microscope into an optical bench capable of producing a focused electron beam of less than 1 μm in diameter, which on impact on the specimen caused the elements in the specimen to emit characteristic x-ray lines. The x-ray spectrum could be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... microscopes that magnify images obtained by the transmission or reflection of either light or electrons. The choice of method depends on several factors, such as the type of specimen and the imaging requirements. For example, reflected light microscopy is common in the imaging of metallic microstructures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... electrons follow the “channels” between densely packed planes and travel to a depth from which the probability of their reescape is small. Dark lines, forming patterns similar to Kikuchi lines in the transmission electron microscope, are thus formed ( Fig. 14 ). When the direction of the primary beam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005627
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... 1958, scientist Karl-Heinz Steigerwald was conducting experiments on a transmission electron microscope and observed melting of the small samples as the beam current was increased ( Ref 1 , 2 ). About the same time in France, Dr. Jacques-Andre Stohr was looking to weld reactive materials with x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... large electron beam welders. (The Faraday cup is a standard piece of equipment for every SEM and transmission electron microscope, or TEM, as well.) The beam current is measured by directing the entire beam into the cup, and the size is measured by rastering it across either the edge of the Faraday cup...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... general features of ductile and brittle fracture modes. fractography fracture modes scanning electron microscopy specimen preparation THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE has unique capabilities for analyzing surfaces. A beam of electrons moves in an x - y pattern across a conductive specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and is typically in the 0.1 to 1% range. Cylindrical-mirror analyzers have a large acceptance angle (42 ± 6° for the Physical Electronics CMA) integrated around the full 360° azimuthal angle and provide for high transmission. The wide angular acceptance enables signal reception simultaneously from a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... “Transmission Electron Microscopy” in this Volume). The goniometer generally allows two sample motions: a rocking about an axis in the plane of the crystal surface and a rotation about an axis normal to the crystal surface. In addition, the goniometer generally permits heating and sometimes cooling of the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... sizes and shapes of features appearing on the images, electronic transmission of images to other locations, and electronic incorporation of images into reports. As can be seen from the above description, the SEM really is not a microscope in the classical sense—it has no lenses that magnify the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... scale is related to elemental concentration. See the article “Electron Probe X-Ray Microanalysis” in this Volume for detailed explanations and applications. A major benefit of the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is its superior resolution over optical microscopy and the SEM. The TEM...