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transformation-toughened ceramics

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Abstract This article summarizes the understanding of the mechanisms and mechanical effects of fatigue processes in highly brittle materials, with particular emphasis on ceramics. It provides a discussion on room-temperature fatigue crack growth in monolithic ceramics, transformation-toughened...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... in reinforcing phases through transformations ( Ref 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ), microcracking ( Ref 10 , 11 ), and twinning, as well as plasticity ( Ref 13 , 14 ), and internal friction ( Ref 4 , 5 ). Toughening is manifest as a fracture resistance, Γ R , that increases with crack extension, Δ a ( Fig. 1 ) ( Ref 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... particles, platelets, whiskers, fibers, and so forth are incorporated into a ceramic or glass matrix in order to enhance composite performance. For the purposes of this discussion, transformation-toughened zirconia ceramics such as the partially stabilized zirconias ( Ref 1 , 2 , and 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... of these materials, intense research was generated to determined other toughening mechanisms (besides transformation toughening and dispersed-phase toughening) and alternative toughened-ceramic systems. Silicon Carbide Whisker (SiC<sub>w</sub>)-Reinforced Alumina Silicon carbide whisker (SiC w )-reinforced...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
.... The SiAlZrON system also gains interest because of the possibility of the martensitic transformation toughening of Si 3 N 4 by ZrO 2 , which has been demonstrated in Al 2 O 3 ceramics. If only ZrO 2 is added to Si 3 N 4 , an undesirable chemical reaction without densification occurs ( Ref 17 ). Further...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... are the characteristics of an archetype ceramic system that would be capable of transformation toughening. Zirconia systems exhibit all of these characteristics, which is why it has been considered the prototypical system for transformation studies and applications. Pure zirconium dioxide will not be capable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... those measured with long cracks. This sensitivity to crack length is a consequence of the mechanisms used to toughen ceramics (e.g., grain bridging in the crack wake), which are extrinsic in nature. Fatigue crack growth of long cracks in toughened ceramics results as the toughening mechanism breaks down...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... used for these applications include transformation-toughened zirconia, Al 2 O 3 -SiC w , and Si 3 N 4 -SiC w . The latter material has the least affinity for aluminum metal pickup during two- piece can-making operations. Figure 9 shows an exploded view of a ceramic can-making tool assembly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... integration or biodegradability have replaced alumina ceramics where that property is critical, including stabilized zirconia and zirconia-toughened alumina. Stabilized Zirconia Stabilized zirconia was introduced to the bioceramics field due to the demand for ceramics with better physical...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... interface, crack deflection, fiber bridging, and fiber pullout. These toughening mechanisms can lead to damage-tolerant behavior, as shown in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Stress-strain behavior of reinforced and unreinforced ceramics. Fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites avoids the brittle catastrophic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... defects. A thermal expansion mismatch between filler grains and glassy phase as well as the quartz inversion (transformation of high-temperature silicates back to quartz) can introduce internal cracks. Whitewares (Fine Ceramics) The fine particle branch of Fig. 3 , fine ceramics, is often termed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... from the strain-induced transformation and microcrack formation ( Ref 16 ). Fig. 17 Scanning electron micrograph of a zirconia toughened ceramic (ZTC), thermally etched in air at 1300 °C (2730 °F). Lighter, tetragonal ZrO 2 grains are dispersed in the Al 2 O 3 matrix. The parallel arrays...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Loading in Transformation-Toughened Ceramics , J. Mech. Phys. Solids , Vol 44 , 1996 , p 207 – 231 10.1016/0022-5096(95)00073-9 29. Tada H. , Paris P.C. , and Irwin G.R. , Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook , Paris Publications Inc. , St. Louis, MO , 1985 30...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... are changing rapidly, with a major emphasis on structural applications. Furthermore, these materials are becoming more complex, in terms of being strengthened and toughened by transformation processes, the addition of other ceramic or metallic materials, or the development of performance-enhancing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... ) is a listing of the solid-state transformation points and types and heats of transformation of various ceramic compounds, taken from the compilation of Barin ( Ref 20 ). The temperatures of incongruent melting or solid-state decomposition reactions are italicized to distinguish them from congruent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... F1873, ISO 13356, ASTM F 2393 Zirconium dioxide ZrO 2 , Mg-PSZ (magnesia partially-stabilized zirconia), TTZ (tetragonally toughened zirconia or transformation-toughened zirconia), TZP (tetragonal zirconia polycrystal), Y-TZP (yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal) Fixation devices; hips...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... Zirconia Zirconia (ZrO 2 ) ceramic is a refractory oxide made from zircon sand and is known to have a high strength and a higher toughness than alumina, especially because it can be significantly toughened for use in mechanical applications ( Ref 7 ). Toughness optimization through various mechanisms...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... into the following categories ( Ref 2 ): Oxide ceramics, which include sintered aluminas and transformation-toughened ceramics (such as partially stabilized zirconia and zirconia-toughened Al 2 O 3 ) SiC ceramics such as Si 3 N 4 -bonded SiC, reaction-bonded SiC, and sintered SiC SiC-based ceramic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... ). Zirconia-toughened alumina, in particular, has shown great promise; the alumina matrix constrains metastable tetragonal zirconia particles that can transform to monoclinic zirconia ahead of a propagating crack ( Ref 23 ). The tetragonal-monoclinic transformation results in a volume expansion that increases...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003056
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Many applications of ceramics and glasses require them to be joined to each other or to other materials such as metals. This article focuses on ceramic joining technologies, including glass-metal sealing, glass-ceramic/metal joining, ceramic-metal joining, ceramic-ceramic joining...