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tramp elements

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...Abstract Abstract During the melting and solidification of cast irons, certain trace (minor) elements may unintentionally accumulate to an extent that they have a detrimental effect on the microstructure of castings. This article discusses the residual elements, trace elements, and tramp...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
..., and properties. It provides information on the inclusions that form as a result of reactions between metallic alloy elements and nonmetallic tramp elements, or by mechanical entrapment of nonmetallic slag or refractory particles. The article reviews the considerations of flux formulation during shielded metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... (allowable tramp element concentrations) for selected nickel-base superalloys Table 7 Quality level (allowable tramp element concentrations) for selected nickel-base superalloys Element IN-718/MAR-M 247, typical alloy concentration Commercial grade Aerospace quality Premium quality Tooling...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., and it is free of detrimental tramp elements. In the early years, pig iron was the predominant charge component for ensuring quality iron with sufficient carbon content and low quantities of detrimental elements. Despite economics that encourage the use of more scrap and less pig iron, pig iron has remained...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in significantly reduced ductility and toughness. Impurity-Induced IG Fracture The presence of certain tramp elements at the grain boundaries of an alloy is one of the major causes of IG fracture. These elements are believed to lower the cohesive strength of the boundaries and, at a given concentration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., refining the grains (increasing the grain-boundary area) decreases the tramp element concentration in a given boundary. This refinement increases the threshold stress intensity in AISI 4340 steel ( Ref 23 ). The addition of some alloying elements may either enhance or diminish the susceptibility...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... elements, and thus it can be used to bring melts contaminated by tramp elements from the scrap charge into specification. Careful analysis of scrap charges and proper mixing of scrap in the charge are necessary to provide consistent melt-composition control. Ferroalloys Because cast iron contains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... materials, such as cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium, and yttrium. These elements may be added separately or within Mg-Fe-Si or inoculants to control minor contamination of tramp elements as well as to manipulate nodule count, nodule size distribution, and minimize the risk of carbides. For very...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... in that they neutralize the effects of some detrimental tramp elements such as lead, bismuth, antimony, and titanium. Rare earth elements are also nodularizers and aid the effects of magnesium. In excess, however, rare earths can cause exploded graphite. This is especially true when high-purity charges are used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... are employed in nodular (spheroidal) graphite cast iron (ductile iron) to accomplish the following tasks: (a) neutralize tramp elements such as titanium, lead, bismuth, arsenic, and so forth; (b) assist in nodulizing and/or provide a supplementary effect to magnesium to promote a more spherical shape...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the higher-nickel alloys of the ductile iron versions, because they are more sensitive to the tramp elements that affect graphite structure. The high nickel content causes the materials to be more prone to hydrogen gas defects; therefore, charge materials should be thoroughly dry, and melting times should...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the CO supersaturation stage via sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) evolution. Minor tramp elements such as lead, silver, bismuth, selenium, and tellurium are partially evaporated during this period as well as throughout the entire refining process ( Ref 3 ). Some undesirable elements, however, such as arsenic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and angle of the liquid + solid zone can be maintained such that unacceptable solute-rich solidification defects do not occur. Unlike VAR, high-vapor-pressure tramp elements are not removed by ESR. Thus, magnesium may be retained at higher levels than is possible in VAR (with beneficial effects on hot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... For low phosphorus levels, careful selection of charge material is required. Steel scrap is generally the lowest-phosphorus-content charge material. Residual Alloys and Tramp Elements The effects of various inadvertent alloys and tramp elements should be understood, and control ranges and maximum...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the remelted ingot. Slag basicity is the ratio of CaO to SiO 2 . Superalloy ESR Generally, superalloy ESR uses a cast VIM electrode as a consumable electrode. Unlike VAR, high-vapor-pressure tramp elements are not removed by ESR. Thus, magnesium may be retained at higher levels than is possible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of their compact shape, sulfur is seldom a cause for concern as a “trampelement in these alloys. Phosphorus, however, can be very detrimental to mechanical properties and castability. Phosphorus segregates along with carbon to interdendritic areas during solidification, where it forms a low-melting-point...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006346
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... irons produced from an SG-base iron absorbed greater energy than those made from gray iron-base iron ( Ref 5 ). This is attributed to the solute-hardening effects of tramp elements in the gray iron. Fig. 13 Effect of pearlite content on the 21 °C (70 °F) Charpy V-notch impact strength of as-cast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... resistance. Powder Metallurgy Materials for Joining Most iron and steel powder compositions can be joined or welded without difficulty. However, some additions or material grades should be avoided if possible. In general, atomized iron grades have lower residual and tramp elements than sponge or other...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... from FG-based iron ( Ref 18 ). This was attributed to the solute-hardening effects of tramp elements in the FG iron. The results from dynamic tear tests were similar, although greater temperature dependence was observed. A comparison of the dynamic tear energies of CG cast irons is presented in Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... during solidification. Fig. 1 Types of grain morphologies that can form in fusion welds Fig. 2 Types of substructure morphologies that can form within the grains of fusion welds Fig. 3 Potential distribution of alloying elements and phase fractions that can form in fusion welds...