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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... degradation, safe workplace, easy location, proximity, and cataloging and tracking. erosion fatigue preventive maintenance tool degradation storage repair patterns tooling cataloging tracking MAINTENANCE AND CARE of equipment is often a neglected aspect of manufacturing in relation to the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article presents the fundamentals of stray-current corrosion caused by electric rail transit systems. It describes the various corrosion-control design elements for the electric rail system. These design elements include substation spacing and grounding, track and track slab...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... methods used to determine the following dielectric properties of plastics: dielectric breakdown voltage, dielectric strength, dielectric constant, dissipation factor, arc tracking resistance, insulation resistance, volume, and surface resistivity or conductivity. The test specifications and conditions...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article examines critical features of four key areas of modeling transport phenomena associated with casting processes. These include heat and species transport in a metal alloy, flow of the liquid metal, tracking of the free metal-gas surface, and inducement of metal flow via...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005614
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... geometry, part configuration, melt-zone configuration, weld atmosphere (vacuum and nonvacuum), and joint design. It describes various aspects considered in EBW of thin and thick metal sections and poorly accessible joints. An overview of scanning and joint tracking techniques for inspection of electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... tracks, exposure of the vehicle in one or more ways to road deicing salts, static exposure to forced climatic conditions, and additional elements such as operating the mechanical systems of the vehicle, car washes, and so forth. It concludes with information on the major advantages and drawbacks of a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... Abstract The development of aluminum alloys has progressed along two tracks: heat treatable and non-heat treatable. The Aluminum Association alloy composition limits and product temper are defined for major alloying elements. This article summarizes the historical evolution of the different...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003479
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... sports, aquatic sports, track, field, and archery equipment are also discussed. aquatic sports bicycling composites recreational equipment sporting goods winter sports THE ADVANTAGES of composite construction have been applied to equipment for a wide range of sports and recreation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... between a metal oxide and aluminum acts as the filler metal. This exothermic process was discovered in 1898, in Germany, by Dr. Hans Goldschmidt of Goldschmidt AG. In the United States, this process was used in the early 1920s to join trolley car track. In 1933, thermite welding was used on the Delaware...
Book Chapter

By Frank K. Ko
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... braiding is its simplicity. A typical braiding machine ( Fig. 2 ) essentially consists of a track plate, spool carrier, former, and a take-up device. In some cases, a reversing ring is used to ensure uniform tension on the braiding yarns. The resulting braid geometry is defined by the braiding angle, θ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... representative of the indenter track. Scratch hardness has some correlation with indentation hardness in that it also measures the response of a material to plastic deformation. Furthermore, since scratch formation is a form of controlled abrasive wear, it would seem reasonable to use the test as a means of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... (0.06–1.0 in). Alloy 2196 extrusions are particularly suited to stiffening damage-tolerant fuselage and lower wing skin. It is also used in buckling applications and recommended for inner structure parts such as floor beams and seat tracks. Its higher Young modulus ( Table 2 ) allows an extra weight...
Book Chapter

By Koji Kato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... pass of sliding of a quenched steel pin in Fig. 2 ( a – c ), grooves are formed on the metal disk surfaces by plastic deformation and remain as wear tracks. Figure 7 shows cross-sectional profiles of grooves formed by three abrasive modes—cutting, wedge-forming, and plowing—where ridges are always...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003614
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of corrosion products underneath a bulged and cracked coating. Filiform tracks are visible at arm's length as small blemishes. On closer examination, they appear as fine striations shaped like tentacles or cobweblike traces ( Fig. 3 ). Though popular literature describes filiforms as “wormlike,” this...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... small as to be immeasurable using conventional techniques (e.g., high-resolution mass balance), then the amount of material lost must be directly calculated. In the case of the dynamic partner (usually a flat disk), it is relatively easy to measure a profile across the wear track using a profilometer...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... inherent uniqueness of braided structures, as well as the progress in hardware and software development for braiding processes. One of the most attractive features of braiding is its simplicity. A typical braiding machine ( Fig. 1 ) consists of a track plate, spool carrier, former, and a take...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... chains, similar to a tank track, to “pinch” the billets and feed them through the induction heating coils. The opposing drive chains provide a longer surface contact on the billet length to overcome gaps between billets created by a “tong hold.” A tong hold is an inexpensive, small-diameter, short stud...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... tracks from alumina. They obtained microhardness values in the range of 15.4 to 19.9 GPa. Fayed, et al. ( Ref 62 ) used SLS to process alumina and obtained a minimum porosity of 4.34% and a Vickers microindentation hardness of 1682 HV. Zheng, et al. ( Ref 63 ) studied SLM of alumina using different...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006745
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... alloy 7175 in Figs. 1 and 2 . Alloy 7349-T6511 and T76511 thin extrusions are particularly suited for stiffening structures such as fuselage panels in the form of high-strength stringers. They are also recommended for seat tracks and floor beams, which require a combination of very high compressive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... plane at top that formed during tearing. Irregular features similar to “tire tracks” at bottom left are formed during the fatigue process when randomly oriented microcracks are created on different planes in front of the notch. When the main crack propagates, it continuously switches from one microcrack...