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trace impurity elements

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... particles generally formed from trace impurity elements that play a predominant role in pitting corrosion. The second category comprises the effects from precipitation of secondary phases and effects from solute remaining in solid solution on corrosion of aluminum. metallurgical effects corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... suppliers to provide metals of the highest reproducible purity attainable. Trace impurity elements in concentrations below 1 ppm can prevent proper functioning of certain electronic devices. The need for ultrapure metals for both the measurement of physical and chemical properties and the electronic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract High-velocity gas motion occurs in and around the arc during welding. This article describes the phenomena of gas flow in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW). The effect of trace element impurities on GTA weld penetration of selected alloys is presented in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... provides information on the heat treatment effects on the physical properties of aluminum alloys and the microstructural effects on the fatigue and fracture of aluminum alloys. The important alloying elements and impurities are listed alphabetically as a concise review of major effects. aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... the channeled-particle oscillations matched to the period of an SLS. (a) Catastrophic planar dechanneling condition for matching the wavelength of the beam (82 nm) to the effective pair layer thickness of an SLS. Tracing of the position and direction of the beam is based on the phase rotation analysis...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... trace concentration levels. Calcium concentrations greater than approximately 0.005% also adversely affect ductility in aluminum-magnesium alloys. Chromium additions are commonly made in low concentrations to room-temperature aging and thermally unstable compositions in which germination and grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... contact with the metal fixture. Chemical conversion coatings have been used to protect aluminum-beryllium from corrosion during EDM operations. Galvanic corrosion has occurred during the etching of beryllium and was traced to soft copper from the jaws of a machining clamp that had smeared onto the hard...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The 60%Sn-40%Pb and 63%Sn-37%Pb alloys are used most extensively in the electronic industries. Traces of aluminum in a tin-lead solder bath can seriously affect soldering qualities. More than 0.005% of this metal can cause grittiness, lack of adhesion, and surface oxidation of the soldering alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... on the physical and mechanical properties. Important alloying elements and impurities are listed alphabetically as a concise review of major effects. aluminum mill products mechanical properties metallurgical factors physical metallurgy physical properties strengthening mechanisms wrought...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
.... Antimony is present in trace amounts (0.01 to 0.1 ppm) in primary commercial-grade aluminum. Antimony has a very small solid solubility in aluminum (<0.01 wt%). It has been added to aluminum-magnesium alloys because it was claimed that by forming a protective film of antimony oxychloride, it enhances...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... to that for stainless steels, in which oxygen-depleted reducing acid conditions develop within tight crevices. General corrosion rates for unalloyed titanium (99.2 wt% Ti with traces of oxygen) in selected media are given in Table 3 . These data should be used only as a guideline for general...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... standard reference materials in metrology 40–44 Quantification of trace elements in steel 45–49 Analysis of high-purity aluminum and aluminum alloys 50–54 Round-robin using copper-matrix BCR ® standards 55, 56 Quality control of pure titanium 57–59 Determination of impurity elements in...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... electrodes. It describes the VIM refinement process, which includes removal of trace elements, nitrogen and hydrogen degassing, and deoxidation. The article concludes with information on production of nonferrous materials by VIM. deoxidation trace elements vacuum induction melting electrodes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and trace elements in metals and alloys. Threshold sensitivity on the order of tens of parts per million (ppm): 0.001 to 0.01% Precision of quantitative analyses: photographic instruments, ∼5% relative or 0.05% absolute, whichever is greater; direct reading and charge coupled device (CCD...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001745
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... agent. The red product is extracted using a suitable solvent and measured in a colorimeter. In the older literature, chloroform is used as the solvent, but a less hazardous solvent, methylene chloride, is now recommended. The method is particularly useful for determining trace amounts of phenols in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... powder. In wet analysis, atomic absorption, inductively coupled plasma, and ion-coupled plasma mass spectrometry are three common techniques used for elemental analysis to identify and quantify the individual elements presented in powders, especially their capability in determining trace elements in...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... rates, trace element or impurity analysis in the bulk is possible. Finally, a secondary ion image of the surface can be generated to provide a spatially resolved analysis of the surface, near surface, or bulk of the solid. This article will focus on the principles and applications of high sputter rate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... technique. Alternatively, the intensity of one or more of the peaks in the mass spectrum can be continuously recorded at a higher sputtering rate to provide an in-depth concentration profile of the near-surface region. At very high sputtering rates, trace element and impurity analysis in the bulk is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005938
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... a few days after quenching were then deep etched in hot concentrated hydrochloric acid. Tracings of cracks, which were found on the peripheral surface of quenched cylinders after deep etching, were depicted as shown in Fig. 1 . Scott described cracks, developed by deep etching, that in some cases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... matched to the period of a strained-layer superlattice (SLS). (a) Catastrophic planar dechanneling condition for matching the wavelength of the beam (82 nm) to the effective pair layer thickness of an SLS. Tracing of the position and direction of the beam is based on the phase rotation analysis. (b...